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Open AccessArticle

Marine Microalgae, Spirulina maxima-Derived Modified Pectin and Modified Pectin Nanoparticles Modulate the Gut Microbiota and Trigger Immune Responses in Mice

1
College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134, Korea
2
Jeju Marine Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), Jeju 63349, Korea
3
Department of Ocean Science, University of Science and Technology (UST), Jeju 63349, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(3), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18030175
Received: 28 January 2020 / Revised: 18 March 2020 / Accepted: 19 March 2020 / Published: 21 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Marine Drugs: Relevance of Nanoformulations in Cancer Therapies)
This study evaluated the modulation of gut microbiota, immune responses, and gut morphometry in C57BL/6 mice, upon oral administration of S. maxima-derived modified pectin (SmP, 7.5 mg/mL) and pectin nanoparticles (SmPNPs; 7.5 mg/mL). Metagenomics analysis was conducted using fecal samples, and mice duodenum and jejunum were used for analyzing the immune response and gut morphometry, respectively. The results of metagenomics analysis revealed that the abundance of Bacteroidetes in the gut increased in response to both modified SmP and SmPNPs (75%) as compared with that in the control group (66%), while that of Firmicutes decreased in (20%) as compared with that in the control group (30%). The mRNA levels of mucin, antimicrobial peptide, and antiviral and gut permeability-related genes in the duodenum were significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated (> 2-fold) upon modified SmP and SmPNPs feeding. Protein level of intestinal alkaline phosphatase was increased (1.9-fold) in the duodenum of modified SmPNPs feeding, evidenced by significantly increased goblet cell density (0.5 ± 0.03 cells/1000 µm2) and villi height (352 ± 10 µm). Our results suggest that both modified SmP and SmPNPs have the potential to modulate gut microbial community, enhance the expression of immune related genes, and improve gut morphology. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacteroidetes; Firmicutes; intestinal alkaline phosphatase; metagenomics; mucin; modified SmP; Spirulina maxima Bacteroidetes; Firmicutes; intestinal alkaline phosphatase; metagenomics; mucin; modified SmP; Spirulina maxima
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Chandrarathna, H.; Liyanage, T.; Edirisinghe, S.; Dananjaya, S.; Thulshan, E.; Nikapitiya, C.; Oh, C.; Kang, D.-H.; De Zoysa, M. Marine Microalgae, Spirulina maxima-Derived Modified Pectin and Modified Pectin Nanoparticles Modulate the Gut Microbiota and Trigger Immune Responses in Mice. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 175.

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