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Open AccessArticle

Sediment as a Potential Pool for Lipophilic Marine Phycotoxins with the Case Study of Daya Bay of China

by Yang Liu 1,3,4, Peng Zhang 1,3,4,5, Sen Du 1,3,4,5, Zhuoru Lin 2,5, Yanyan Zhou 1,3,4, Lizhao Chen 1,3,4, Rencheng Yu 2,5,* and Li Zhang 1,3,4,5,*
1
Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
2
Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China
3
Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 510301, China
4
Institution of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
5
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110623
Received: 12 October 2019 / Revised: 28 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
Marine sediments can reserve many environmental pollutants. Lipophilic marine phycotoxins (LMPs) are natural toxic substances widespread in the marine environment; however, evidence of their existence in sediment is scarce. In the present study, in order to explore the occurrence and distribution characteristics of LMPs in sediment, surface sediment samples collected from a tropical area of Daya Bay (DYB) at different seasons, were analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). According to the results, up to six toxin compounds were detected in sediment samples from DYB, OA and DTX1 had the highest levels, followed by PTX2, homo-YTX, AZA2, and GYM. Although AZA2 and GYM were found in most of the sediment, OA, DTX1, homo-YTX, and PTX2 were the predominant toxin compounds, and PTX2 was the most ubiquitous toxin in sediment. The spatial distribution of LMP components in the sediment fluctuated with sampling times, partially according to the physical–chemical parameters of the sediment. There are likely several sources for LMPs existing in surface sediments, but it is difficult to determine contributions of a specific toxin-source in the sediment. Therefore, marine sediments may be a toxin reservoir for LMPs accumulation in benthic organisms via food chains. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipophilic marine phycotoxins; sediment; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; Daya Bay; toxin composition; spatial distribution lipophilic marine phycotoxins; sediment; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; Daya Bay; toxin composition; spatial distribution
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Liu, Y.; Zhang, P.; Du, S.; Lin, Z.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, L.; Yu, R.; Zhang, L. Sediment as a Potential Pool for Lipophilic Marine Phycotoxins with the Case Study of Daya Bay of China. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 623.

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