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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(12), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16120486

Algal Oxylipins Mediate the Resistance of Diatoms against Algicidal Bacteria

1
Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Bioorganic Analytics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Lessingstr. 8, D-07743 Jena, Germany
2
Department for Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Philosophenweg 14, D-07743 Jena, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies to Counteract Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms)
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Abstract

Algicidal bacteria can lyse microalgal blooms and trigger shifts within plankton communities. Resistant algal species can escape lysis, and have the opportunity to dominate the phytoplankton after a bacterial infection. Despite their important function in ecosystem regulation, little is known about mechanisms of resistance. Here, we show that the diatom Chaetoceros didymus releases eicosanoid oxylipins into the medium, and that the lytic algicidal bacterium, Kordia algicida, induces the production of several wound-activated oxylipins in this resistant diatom. Neither releases nor an induction occurs in the susceptible diatom Skeletonema costatum that is lysed by the bacterium within a few days. Among the upregulated oxylipins, hydroxylated eicosapentaenoic acids (HEPEs) dominate. However, also, resolvins, known lipid mediators in mammals, increase upon exposure of the algae to the algicidal bacteria. The prevailing hydroxylated fatty acid, 15-HEPE, significantly inhibits growth of K. algicida at a concentration of approximately 1 µM. The oxylipin production may represent an independent line of defense of the resistant alga, acting in addition to the previously reported upregulation of proteases. View Full-Text
Keywords: HEPE hydroxylated eicosapentaenoic acid; HETE hydroxylated eicosatetraenoic acid; oxylipins; diatoms; plankton; algicidal bacteria; induced chemical defense; resolvins HEPE hydroxylated eicosapentaenoic acid; HETE hydroxylated eicosatetraenoic acid; oxylipins; diatoms; plankton; algicidal bacteria; induced chemical defense; resolvins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Meyer, N.; Rettner, J.; Werner, M.; Werz, O.; Pohnert, G. Algal Oxylipins Mediate the Resistance of Diatoms against Algicidal Bacteria. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 486.

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