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Protective Effects of Fucoidan on Aβ25–35 and d-Gal-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells and d-Gal-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Mice

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Department of Biotechnology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China
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College of Integrative Medicine, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China
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College of Life Sciences, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116081, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith B. Glaser
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15030077
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 4 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease which contributes to memory loss and cognitive decline in the elderly. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a complex sulfated polysaccharide and potential bioactive compound. In this study, we investigated whether fucoidan protects PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by a combination of beta-amyloid 25–35 (Aβ25–35) and d-galactose (d-Gal), and improves learning and memory impairment in AD model mice. The results indicated that fucoidan could inhibit the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to cytosol and activation of caspases, and increase the expression of apoptosis inhibitor proteins (IAPs), including livin and X-linked IAP (XIAP) in PC12 cells damaged by Aβ25–35 and d-Gal-induction. Fucoidan reversed the decreased activity of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), as well as the increased activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE), in AD model mice induced by infusion of d-Gal. Furthermore, fucoidan improved antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo by activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH). These results suggested that fucoidan could protect PC12 cells from apoptosis and ameliorate the learning and memory impairment in AD model mice, which appeared to be due to regulating the cholinergic system, reducing oxidative stress, and inhibiting the caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: fucoidan; Alzheimer’s disease; neuroprotection; apoptosis; amyloid-β peptide fucoidan; Alzheimer’s disease; neuroprotection; apoptosis; amyloid-β peptide
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Wei, H.; Gao, Z.; Zheng, L.; Zhang, C.; Liu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Teng, H.; Hou, L.; Yin, Y.; Zou, X. Protective Effects of Fucoidan on Aβ25–35 and d-Gal-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells and d-Gal-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Mice. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 77.

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