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Potential Threats Posed by New or Emerging Marine Biotoxins in UK Waters and Examination of Detection Methodologies Used for Their Control: Cyclic Imines
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Potential Threats Posed by Tetrodotoxins in UK Waters: Examination of Detection Methodology Used in Their Control

Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK
Agri-food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, UK
Pacific Laboratory Northwest, United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), 22201 23rd Dr, S.E., Bothell, WA 98021, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vítor Vasconcelos
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(12), 7357-7376;
Received: 26 September 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Marine Toxins)
Tetrodotoxin is a neurotoxin responsible for many human fatalities, most commonly following the consumption of pufferfish. Whilst the source of the toxin has not been conclusively proven, it is thought to be associated with various species of marine bacteria. Whilst the toxins are well studied in fish and gastropods, in recent years, there have been a number of reports of tetrodotoxin occurring in bivalve shellfish, including those harvested from the UK and other parts of Europe. This paper reviews evidence concerning the prevalence of tetrodotoxins in the UK together with methodologies currently available for testing. Biological, biomolecular and chemical methods are reviewed, including recommendations for further work. With the recent development of quantitative chromatographic methods for these and other hydrophilic toxins, as well as the commercial availability of rapid testing kits, there are a number of options available to ensure consumers are protected against this threat. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxins; shellfish; pufferfish poisoning; TTX tetrodotoxins; shellfish; pufferfish poisoning; TTX
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Turner, A.D.; Higgins, C.; Higman, W.; Hungerford, J. Potential Threats Posed by Tetrodotoxins in UK Waters: Examination of Detection Methodology Used in Their Control. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 7357-7376.

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