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Article

Preparation of Multifunctional N-Doped Carbon Quantum Dots from Citrus clementina Peel: Investigating Targeted Pharmacological Activities and the Potential Application for Fe3+ Sensing

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Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, University of Osijek, Franje Kuhača 18, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Chemistry, University of Osijek, Ulica cara Hadrijana 8/A, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST), Daegu 42988, Korea
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Division of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Division of Molecular Biology, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Division of Molecular Medicine, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Biotechnology, University of Rijeka, Radmile Matejčić 2, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Faculty of Health Studies, University of Rijeka, Viktora Cara Emina 5, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Pécs, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary
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Mads Clausen Institute, NanoSYD, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg, Denmark
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Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 35, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Okhil Kumar Nag
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(9), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14090857
Received: 6 August 2021 / Revised: 21 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 27 August 2021
Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have recently emerged as innovative theranostic nanomaterials, enabling fast and effective diagnosis and treatment. In this study, a facile hydrothermal approach for N-doped biomass-derived CQDs preparation from Citrus clementina peel and amino acids glycine (Gly) and arginine (Arg) has been presented. The gradual increase in the N-dopant (amino acids) nitrogen content increased the quantum yield of synthesized CQDs. The prepared CQDs exhibited good biocompatibility, stability in aqueous, and high ionic strength media, similar optical properties, while differences were observed regarding the structural and chemical diversity, and biological and antioxidant activity. The antiproliferative effect of [email protected] against pancreatic cancer cell lines (CFPAC-1) was observed. At the same time, [email protected] has demonstrated the highest quantum yield and antioxidant activity by DPPH scavenging radical method of 81.39 ± 0.39% and has been further used for the ion sensing and cellular imaging of cancer cells. The obtained results have demonstrated selective response toward Fe3+ detection, with linear response ranging from 7.0 µmol dm−3 to 50.0 µmol dm−3 with R2 = 0.9931 and limit of detection (LOD) of 4.57 ± 0.27 µmol dm−3. This research could be a good example of sustainable biomass waste utilization with potential for biomedical analysis and ion sensing applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus waste; carbon quantum dots; N-doping; Fe3+ detection; biocompatibility citrus waste; carbon quantum dots; N-doping; Fe3+ detection; biocompatibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Šafranko, S.; Stanković, A.; Hajra, S.; Kim, H.-J.; Strelec, I.; Dutour-Sikirić, M.; Weber, I.; Bosnar, M.H.; Grbčić, P.; Pavelić, S.K.; Széchenyi, A.; Mishra, Y.K.; Jerković, I.; Jokić, S. Preparation of Multifunctional N-Doped Carbon Quantum Dots from Citrus clementina Peel: Investigating Targeted Pharmacological Activities and the Potential Application for Fe3+ Sensing. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 857. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14090857

AMA Style

Šafranko S, Stanković A, Hajra S, Kim H-J, Strelec I, Dutour-Sikirić M, Weber I, Bosnar MH, Grbčić P, Pavelić SK, Széchenyi A, Mishra YK, Jerković I, Jokić S. Preparation of Multifunctional N-Doped Carbon Quantum Dots from Citrus clementina Peel: Investigating Targeted Pharmacological Activities and the Potential Application for Fe3+ Sensing. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(9):857. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14090857

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šafranko, Silvija, Anamarija Stanković, Sugato Hajra, Hoe-Joon Kim, Ivica Strelec, Maja Dutour-Sikirić, Igor Weber, Maja H. Bosnar, Petra Grbčić, Sandra K. Pavelić, Aleksandar Széchenyi, Yogendra K. Mishra, Igor Jerković, and Stela Jokić. 2021. "Preparation of Multifunctional N-Doped Carbon Quantum Dots from Citrus clementina Peel: Investigating Targeted Pharmacological Activities and the Potential Application for Fe3+ Sensing" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 9: 857. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14090857

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