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Open AccessArticle

Determination of Diclofenac on a Dysprosium Nanowire- Modified Carbon Paste Electrode Accomplished in a Flow Injection System by Advanced Filtering

1
Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2
Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3
Medical Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tehran Medicinal Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2009, 9(10), 7903-7918; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91007903
Received: 6 June 2009 / Revised: 11 July 2009 / Accepted: 29 July 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
A new detection technique called Fast Fourier Transform Square-Wave Voltammetry (FFT SWV) is based on measurements of electrode admittance as a function of potential. The response of the detector (microelectrode), which is generated by a redox processes, is fast, which makes the method suitable for most applications involving flowing electrolytes. The carbon paste electrode was modified by nanostructures to improve sensitivity. Synthesized dysprosium nanowires provide a more effective nanotube-like surface [1-4] so they are good candidates for use as a modifier for electrochemical reactions. The redox properties of diclofenac were used for its determination in human serum and urine samples. The support electrolyte that provided a more defined and intense peak current for diclofenac determination was a 0.05 mol L−1 acetate buffer pH = 4.0. The drug presented an irreversible oxidation peak at 850 mV vs. Ag/AgCl on a modified nanowire carbon paste electrode which produced high current and reduced the oxidation potential by about 100 mV. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly increased by application of a discrete Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, background subtraction and two-dimensional integration of the electrode response over a selected potential range and time window. To obtain the much sensivity the effective parameters such as frequency, amplitude and pH was optimized. As a result, CDL of 2.0 × 10−9 M and an LOQ of 5.0 × 10−9 M were found for the determination for diclofenac. A good recovery was obtained for assay spiked urine samples and a good quantification of diclofenac was achieved in a commercial formulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fast Fourier Transformation; square wave voltammetry; carbon paste electrode dysprosium nanowire; diclofenac; oxidation-reduction Fast Fourier Transformation; square wave voltammetry; carbon paste electrode dysprosium nanowire; diclofenac; oxidation-reduction
MDPI and ACS Style

Daneshgar, P.; Norouzi, P.; Ganjali, M.R.; Dinarvand, R.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. Determination of Diclofenac on a Dysprosium Nanowire- Modified Carbon Paste Electrode Accomplished in a Flow Injection System by Advanced Filtering. Sensors 2009, 9, 7903-7918.

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