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Performance Evaluation of a Smart Bed Technology against Polysomnography

Sleep Number® Labs, San Jose, CA 95113, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Susanna Spinsante
Sensors 2022, 22(7), 2605;
Received: 18 February 2022 / Revised: 22 March 2022 / Accepted: 24 March 2022 / Published: 29 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
The Sleep Number smart bed uses embedded ballistocardiography, together with network connectivity, signal processing, and machine learning, to detect heart rate (HR), breathing rate (BR), and sleep vs. wake states. This study evaluated the performance of the smart bed relative to polysomnography (PSG) in estimating epoch-by-epoch HR, BR, sleep vs. wake, mean overnight HR and BR, and summary sleep variables. Forty-five participants (aged 22–64 years; 55% women) slept one night on the smart bed with standard PSG. Smart bed data were compared to PSG by Bland–Altman analysis and Pearson correlation for epoch-by-epoch HR and epoch-by-epoch BR. Agreement in sleep vs. wake classification was quantified using Cohen’s kappa, ROC analysis, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and precision. Epoch-by-epoch HR and BR were highly correlated with PSG (HR: r = 0.81, |bias| = 0.23 beats/min; BR: r = 0.71, |bias| = 0.08 breaths/min), as were estimations of mean overnight HR and BR (HR: r = 0.94, |bias| = 0.15 beats/min; BR: r = 0.96, |bias| = 0.09 breaths/min). Calculated agreement for sleep vs. wake detection included kappa (prevalence and bias-adjusted) = 0.74 ± 0.11, AUC = 0.86, sensitivity = 0.94 ± 0.05, specificity = 0.48 ± 0.18, accuracy = 0.86 ± 0.11, and precision = 0.90 ± 0.06. For all-night summary variables, agreement was moderate to strong. Overall, the findings suggest that the Sleep Number smart bed may provide reliable metrics to unobtrusively characterize human sleep under real life-conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: ballistocardiography; breathing rate; heart rate ballistocardiography; breathing rate; heart rate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Siyahjani, F.; Garcia Molina, G.; Barr, S.; Mushtaq, F. Performance Evaluation of a Smart Bed Technology against Polysomnography. Sensors 2022, 22, 2605.

AMA Style

Siyahjani F, Garcia Molina G, Barr S, Mushtaq F. Performance Evaluation of a Smart Bed Technology against Polysomnography. Sensors. 2022; 22(7):2605.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Siyahjani, Farzad, Gary Garcia Molina, Shawn Barr, and Faisal Mushtaq. 2022. "Performance Evaluation of a Smart Bed Technology against Polysomnography" Sensors 22, no. 7: 2605.

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