# An Efficient Metaheuristic-Based Clustering with Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Literature Review

## 3. The Proposed Model

#### 3.1. System Model

- The nodes know its position and the position of SN on initial placement;
- Nodes might become the CH, and clusters member/relay;
- The CH is rotated among the sensors for conserving energy.

#### 3.2. Design of CEPOC Technique

#### 3.3. Design of MHR-GOA Technique

Algorithm 1: Pseudo code of GOA |

Initialize $\mathrm{Start}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{swarms}{X}_{\mathrm{i}}\left(i=1,2,\dots ,\mathrm{n}\right)$, $\mathrm{Initiate}cmax$$,\mathrm{c}min$ and maximal amounts of iteration; Evaluate the fitness of every search agent; T = optimal search agent; $\mathrm{while}(l\le Max$ amounts of iteration) Upgrade c; for every search agent Regulate the distance amongst grasshopper in [1,4]; Upgrade the location of the present search agent; Bring the present search agent back when it drives outside the boundary; end for $\mathrm{Upgrade}T$ when it has an optimal solution; $l=l+1$; end while $\mathrm{return}T$; End |

## 4. Performance Validation

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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Number of Rounds | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

LEACH | LEACH-ANT | CUWSN | EOCA | ACOCR | MCR-UWSN | |

FND | 424 | 560 | 629 | 689 | 805 | 852 |

HND | 646 | 813 | 891 | 949 | 1050 | 1121 |

LND | 710 | 906 | 989 | 1021 | 1165 | 1187 |

**Table 2.**Result analysis of MCR-UWSN model in terms of the number of rounds for energy exhausted (NREE).

Number of Rounds for Energy Exhausted (NREE) | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Number of Nodes | LEACH | LEACH-ANT | CUWSN | EOCA | ACOCR | MCR-UWSN |

300 | 463 | 631 | 718 | 775 | 919 | 1000 |

325 | 523 | 691 | 751 | 859 | 952 | 1045 |

350 | 619 | 793 | 823 | 904 | 1000 | 1093 |

375 | 670 | 826 | 919 | 991 | 1111 | 1186 |

400 | 709 | 913 | 985 | 1027 | 1168 | 1264 |

425 | 781 | 946 | 1021 | 1111 | 1201 | 1288 |

450 | 826 | 1045 | 1090 | 1156 | 1252 | 1336 |

475 | 868 | 1099 | 1138 | 1225 | 1306 | 1387 |

500 | 928 | 1138 | 1231 | 1267 | 1411 | 1489 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Subramani, N.; Mohan, P.; Alotaibi, Y.; Alghamdi, S.; Khalaf, O.I.
An Efficient Metaheuristic-Based Clustering with Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. *Sensors* **2022**, *22*, 415.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020415

**AMA Style**

Subramani N, Mohan P, Alotaibi Y, Alghamdi S, Khalaf OI.
An Efficient Metaheuristic-Based Clustering with Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. *Sensors*. 2022; 22(2):415.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020415

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Subramani, Neelakandan, Prakash Mohan, Youseef Alotaibi, Saleh Alghamdi, and Osamah Ibrahim Khalaf.
2022. "An Efficient Metaheuristic-Based Clustering with Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks" *Sensors* 22, no. 2: 415.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020415