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Open AccessArticle

Offshore Online Measurements of Total Suspended Solids Using Microscopy Analyzers

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Niels Bohrs Vej 8, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bruno Tiribilli
Sensors 2021, 21(9), 3192; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093192
Received: 6 January 2021 / Revised: 27 April 2021 / Accepted: 28 April 2021 / Published: 4 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sensing and Imaging)
Accurate online water quality measurements have gained attention during the last decades in the oil and gas industry for improving operational performance and protecting the surrounding environment. One potential solution to extend the reservoirs’ economic life and put less strain on the environment is by re-injecting the produced water, but the injected water quality must be high and consistent to prevent injectivity reduction. This paper evaluates two different online microscopy analyzers that utilize a high-resolution video camera for capturing images of the particles passing their view cell. The calibration procedure for both online microscopy analyzers has been thoroughly validated for steady-state and real-time measurements. The real-time measurements were achieved by post-processing the data captured by the microscopes and applying a trailing moving average window. The performance of measuring the oil-in-water concentration was compared with an online fluorescence-based monitor. The paper addresses the statistical considerations when defining the level of accuracy of the predicted particle size distribution within a defined confidence interval. Both microscopes showed promising results for measuring known particle sizes and oil-in-water concentrations, both in steady-state and real-time. View Full-Text
Keywords: oil and gas industry; produced water; microscopy analyzer; oil-in-water concentration; real-time measurements; calibration procedure oil and gas industry; produced water; microscopy analyzer; oil-in-water concentration; real-time measurements; calibration procedure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hansen, D.S.; Jespersen, S.; Bram, M.V.; Yang, Z. Offshore Online Measurements of Total Suspended Solids Using Microscopy Analyzers. Sensors 2021, 21, 3192. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093192

AMA Style

Hansen DS, Jespersen S, Bram MV, Yang Z. Offshore Online Measurements of Total Suspended Solids Using Microscopy Analyzers. Sensors. 2021; 21(9):3192. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093192

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hansen, Dennis S.; Jespersen, Stefan; Bram, Mads V.; Yang, Zhenyu. 2021. "Offshore Online Measurements of Total Suspended Solids Using Microscopy Analyzers" Sensors 21, no. 9: 3192. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093192

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