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Open AccessArticle

An Adaptive TE-PV Hybrid Energy Harvesting System for Self-Powered IoT Sensor Applications

1
Institute of Sustainable Energy (ISE), Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
2
College of Engineering (COE), Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Smart Microgrid Advanced Research and Technology (SMART) Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX 77446, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Massimo Conti
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2604; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082604
Received: 27 January 2021 / Revised: 17 March 2021 / Accepted: 22 March 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks)
In this paper, an integrated thermoelectric (TE) and photovoltaic (PV) hybrid energy harvesting system (HEHS) is proposed for self-powered internet of thing (IoT)-enabled wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The proposed system can run at a minimum of 0.8 V input voltage under indoor light illumination of at least 50 lux and a minimum temperature difference, ∆T = 5 °C. At the lowest illumination and temperature difference, the device can deliver 0.14 W of power. At the highest illumination of 200 lux and ∆T = 13 °C, the device can deliver 2.13 W. The developed HEHS can charge a 0.47 F, 5.5 V supercapacitor (SC) up to 4.12 V at the combined input voltage of 3.2 V within 17 s. In the absence of any energy sources, the designed device can back up the complete system for 92 s. The sensors can successfully send 39 data string to the webserver within this time at a two-second data transmission interval. A message queuing telemetry transport (MQTT) based IoT framework with a customised smartphone application ‘MQTT dashboard’ is developed and integrated with an ESP32 Wi-Fi module to transmit, store, and monitor the sensors data over time. This research, therefore, opens up new prospects for self-powered autonomous IoT sensor systems under fluctuating environments and energy harvesting regimes, however, utilising available atmospheric light and thermal energy. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy harvesting (EH); hybrid energy harvesting (HEH); solar photovoltaic; thermoelectric; internet of things (IoT); wireless sensor networks (WSNs); low power electronic devices energy harvesting (EH); hybrid energy harvesting (HEH); solar photovoltaic; thermoelectric; internet of things (IoT); wireless sensor networks (WSNs); low power electronic devices
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mishu, M.K.; Rokonuzzaman, M.; Pasupuleti, J.; Shakeri, M.; Rahman, K.S.; Binzaid, S.; Tiong, S.K.; Amin, N. An Adaptive TE-PV Hybrid Energy Harvesting System for Self-Powered IoT Sensor Applications. Sensors 2021, 21, 2604. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082604

AMA Style

Mishu MK, Rokonuzzaman M, Pasupuleti J, Shakeri M, Rahman KS, Binzaid S, Tiong SK, Amin N. An Adaptive TE-PV Hybrid Energy Harvesting System for Self-Powered IoT Sensor Applications. Sensors. 2021; 21(8):2604. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082604

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mishu, Mahmuda K.; Rokonuzzaman, Md.; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Shakeri, Mohammad; Rahman, Kazi S.; Binzaid, Shuza; Tiong, Sieh K.; Amin, Nowshad. 2021. "An Adaptive TE-PV Hybrid Energy Harvesting System for Self-Powered IoT Sensor Applications" Sensors 21, no. 8: 2604. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082604

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