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Article

Remote Photoacoustic Sensing Using Single Speckle Analysis by an Ultra-Fast Four Quadrant Photo-Detector

1
Institute of Photonic Technologies, University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Konrad-Zuse-Straße 3/5, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
2
Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), Paul-Gordan-Straße 6, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
3
Sensor Technology, University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Paul-Gordan-Straße 3/5, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
4
Laboratory for Electrical Instrumentation and Embedded Systems, Department of Microsystems Engineering—IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 106, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
5
Faculty of Engineering, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mithun Kuniyil Ajith Singh and Wenfeng Xia
Sensors 2021, 21(6), 2109; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062109
Received: 22 January 2021 / Revised: 9 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
The need for tissue contact makes photoacoustic imaging not applicable for special medical applications like wound imaging, endoscopy, or laser surgery. An easy, stable, and contact-free sensing technique might thus help to broaden the applications of the medical imaging modality. In this work, it is demonstrated for the first time that remote photoacoustic sensing by speckle analysis can be performed in the MHz sampling range by tracking a single speckle using a four quadrant photo-detector. A single speckle, which is created by self-interference of surface back-reflection, is temporally analyzed using this photo-detector. Phantoms and skin samples are measured in transmission and reflection mode. The potential for miniaturization for endoscopic application is demonstrated by fiber bundle measurements. In addition, sensing parameters are discussed. Photoacoustic sensing in the MHz sampling range by single speckle analysis with the four quadrant detector is successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the endoscopic applicability is proven, and the sensing parameters are convenient for photoacoustic sensing. It can be concluded that a single speckle contains all the relevant information for remote photoacoustic signal detection. Single speckle sensing is therefore an easy, robust, contact-free photoacoustic detection technique and holds the potential for economical, ultra-fast photoacoustic sensing. The new detection technique might thus help to broaden the field of photoacoustic imaging applications in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: photoacoustic; remote sensing; endoscopy; speckle photoacoustic; remote sensing; endoscopy; speckle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lengenfelder, B.; Hohmann, M.; Späth, M.; Scherbaum, D.; Weiß, M.; Rupitsch, S.J.; Schmidt, M.; Zalevsky, Z.; Klämpfl, F. Remote Photoacoustic Sensing Using Single Speckle Analysis by an Ultra-Fast Four Quadrant Photo-Detector. Sensors 2021, 21, 2109. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062109

AMA Style

Lengenfelder B, Hohmann M, Späth M, Scherbaum D, Weiß M, Rupitsch SJ, Schmidt M, Zalevsky Z, Klämpfl F. Remote Photoacoustic Sensing Using Single Speckle Analysis by an Ultra-Fast Four Quadrant Photo-Detector. Sensors. 2021; 21(6):2109. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062109

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lengenfelder, Benjamin, Martin Hohmann, Moritz Späth, Daniel Scherbaum, Manuel Weiß, Stefan J. Rupitsch, Michael Schmidt, Zeev Zalevsky, and Florian Klämpfl. 2021. "Remote Photoacoustic Sensing Using Single Speckle Analysis by an Ultra-Fast Four Quadrant Photo-Detector" Sensors 21, no. 6: 2109. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062109

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