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Open AccessArticle

Growth Mechanisms of ZnO Micro-Nanomorphologies and Their Role in Enhancing Gas Sensing Properties

1
Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie per l’Energia e la Mobilità Sostenibili (CNR–STEMS), Via Canal Bianco 28, 44124 Ferrara, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino, Italy
3
Istituto di Scienze Applicate e Sistemi Intelligenti “E. Caianiello” (CNR-ISASI), Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cupa Cintia 21, 80126 Napoli, Italy
4
Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse (CNR-IGG), Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze, Italy
5
Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alvise Bagolini
Sensors 2021, 21(4), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041331
Received: 21 January 2021 / Revised: 8 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 13 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Micro and Nano Technologies for Gas Sensing)
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the main functional materials used to realize chemiresistive gas sensors. In addition, ZnO can be grown through many different methods obtaining the widest family of unique morphologies. However, the relationship between the ZnO morphologies and their gas sensing properties needs more detailed investigations, also with the aim to improve the sensor performances. In this work, seven nanoforms (such as leaves, bisphenoids, flowers, needles, etc.) were prepared through simple wet chemical synthesis. Morphological and structural characterizations were performed to figure out their growth mechanisms. Then, the obtained powders were deposited through screen-printing technique to realize thick film gas sensors. The gas sensing behavior was tested toward some traditional target gases and some volatile organic compounds (acetone, acetaldehyde, etc.) and compared with ZnO morphologies. Results showed a direct correlation between the sensors responses and the powders features (morphology and size), which depend on the specific synthesis process. The sensors can be divided in two behavioral classes, following the two main morphology kinds: aggregates of nanocrystals (leaves and bisphenoids), exhibiting best performances versus all tested gases and monocrystal based (stars, needle, long needles, flowers, and prisms). View Full-Text
Keywords: ZnO nanomorphologies; ε-Zn(OH)2; growth mechanisms; pseudomorphism; chemoresistive gas sensors; thick films; VOCs detection ZnO nanomorphologies; ε-Zn(OH)2; growth mechanisms; pseudomorphism; chemoresistive gas sensors; thick films; VOCs detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fioravanti, A.; Marani, P.; Morandi, S.; Lettieri, S.; Mazzocchi, M.; Sacerdoti, M.; Carotta, M.C. Growth Mechanisms of ZnO Micro-Nanomorphologies and Their Role in Enhancing Gas Sensing Properties. Sensors 2021, 21, 1331. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041331

AMA Style

Fioravanti A, Marani P, Morandi S, Lettieri S, Mazzocchi M, Sacerdoti M, Carotta MC. Growth Mechanisms of ZnO Micro-Nanomorphologies and Their Role in Enhancing Gas Sensing Properties. Sensors. 2021; 21(4):1331. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041331

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fioravanti, Ambra; Marani, Pietro; Morandi, Sara; Lettieri, Stefano; Mazzocchi, Mauro; Sacerdoti, Michele; Carotta, Maria C. 2021. "Growth Mechanisms of ZnO Micro-Nanomorphologies and Their Role in Enhancing Gas Sensing Properties" Sensors 21, no. 4: 1331. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041331

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