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Article

Simulations of Switchback, Fragmentation and Sunspot Pair in δ-Sunspots during Magnetic Flux Emergence

by and *,†
Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2021, 21(2), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020586
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 7 January 2021 / Accepted: 12 January 2021 / Published: 15 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation Studies on Remote Sensing Scenarios)
Strong flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), launched from δ-sunspots, are the most catastrophic energy-releasing events in the solar system. The formations of δ-sunspots and relevant polarity inversion lines (PILs) are crucial for the understanding of flare eruptions and CMEs. In this work, the kink-stable, spot-spot-type δ-sunspots induced by flux emergence are simulated, under different subphotospheric initial conditions of magnetic field strength, radius, twist, and depth. The time evolution of various plasma variables of the δ-sunspots are simulated and compared with the observation data, including magnetic bipolar structures, relevant PILs, and temperature. The simulation results show that magnetic polarities display switchbacks at a certain stage and then split into numerous fragments. The simulated fragmentation phenomenon in some δ-sunspots may provide leads for future observations in the field. View Full-Text
Keywords: δ-sunspot; polarity inversion line (PIL); solar flare; coronal mass ejection (CME); magnetic flux emergence δ-sunspot; polarity inversion line (PIL); solar flare; coronal mass ejection (CME); magnetic flux emergence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, C.-J.; Kiang, J.-F. Simulations of Switchback, Fragmentation and Sunspot Pair in δ-Sunspots during Magnetic Flux Emergence. Sensors 2021, 21, 586. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020586

AMA Style

Chang C-J, Kiang J-F. Simulations of Switchback, Fragmentation and Sunspot Pair in δ-Sunspots during Magnetic Flux Emergence. Sensors. 2021; 21(2):586. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020586

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Che-Jui, and Jean-Fu Kiang. 2021. "Simulations of Switchback, Fragmentation and Sunspot Pair in δ-Sunspots during Magnetic Flux Emergence" Sensors 21, no. 2: 586. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020586

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