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X-Ray Single-Grating Interferometry for Wavefront Measurement and Correction of Hard X-Ray Nanofocusing Mirrors
Open AccessArticle

Binary Amplitude Reflection Gratings for X-ray Shearing and Hartmann Wavefront Sensors

Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2021, 21(2), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020536
Received: 26 November 2020 / Revised: 4 January 2021 / Accepted: 6 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue EUV and X-ray Wavefront Sensing)
New, high-coherent-flux X-ray beamlines at synchrotron and free-electron laser light sources rely on wavefront sensors to achieve and maintain optimal alignment under dynamic operating conditions. This includes feedback to adaptive X-ray optics. We describe the design and modeling of a new class of binary-amplitude reflective gratings for shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Compact arrays of deeply etched gratings illuminated at glancing incidence can withstand higher power densities than transmission membranes and can be designed to operate across a broad range of photon energies with a fixed grating-to-detector distance. Coherent wave-propagation is used to study the energy bandwidth of individual elements in an array and to set the design parameters. We observe that shearing operates well over a ±10% bandwidth, while Hartmann can be extended to ±30% or more, in our configuration. We apply this methodology to the design of a wavefront sensor for a soft X-ray beamline operating from 230 eV to 1400 eV and model shearing and Hartmann tests in the presence of varying wavefront aberration types and magnitudes. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-ray; wavefront; shearing; Hartmann; Talbot; grating; interferometry; aberrations X-ray; wavefront; shearing; Hartmann; Talbot; grating; interferometry; aberrations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Goldberg, K.A.; Wojdyla, A.; Bryant, D. Binary Amplitude Reflection Gratings for X-ray Shearing and Hartmann Wavefront Sensors. Sensors 2021, 21, 536. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020536

AMA Style

Goldberg KA, Wojdyla A, Bryant D. Binary Amplitude Reflection Gratings for X-ray Shearing and Hartmann Wavefront Sensors. Sensors. 2021; 21(2):536. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020536

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Wojdyla, Antoine; Bryant, Diane. 2021. "Binary Amplitude Reflection Gratings for X-ray Shearing and Hartmann Wavefront Sensors" Sensors 21, no. 2: 536. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020536

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