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Article

Double-Antigen Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Detection of Anti-HIV-1 and -2 Antibodies Using Upconverting Nanoparticle Reporters

1
Department of Biotechnology, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
2
Department of Virology and Clinical Microbiology, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
3
International Centre for Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, New Delhi 110067, India
4
Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad 121001, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2021, 21(2), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020330
Received: 12 December 2020 / Revised: 30 December 2020 / Accepted: 1 January 2021 / Published: 6 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lateral Flow Immunoassay: Advances and Applications)
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are often used for the detection of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in remote locations in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) with low or limited access to central laboratories. The typical format of an RDT is a lateral flow assay (LFA) with visual interpretation prone to subjectivity. This risk of misinterpretation can be overcome with luminescent upconverting nanoparticle reporters (UCNPs) measured with a miniaturized easy-to-use reader instrument. An LFA with UCNPs for anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies was developed and the assay performance was evaluated extensively with challenging patient sample panels. Sensitivity (n = 145) of the UCNP-LFA was 96.6% (95% CI: 92.1–98.8%) and specificity (n = 309) was 98.7% (95% CI: 96.7–99.7%). Another set of samples (n = 200) was used for a comparison between the UCNP-LFA and a conventional visual RDT. In this comparison, the sensitivities for HIV-1 were 96.4% (95% CI: 89.8–99.3%) and 97.6% (95% CI: 91.6–99.7%), for the UCNP-LFA and conventional RDT, respectively. The specificity was 100% (95% CI: 96.4–100%) for both assays. The developed UCNP-LFA demonstrates the applicability of UCNPs for the detection of anti-HIV antibodies. The signal measurement is done by a reader instrument, which may facilitate automated result interpretation, archiving and transfer of data from de-centralized locations. View Full-Text
Keywords: rapid testing; HIV; lateral flow assay; upconverting nanoparticles; diagnostics; point of care rapid testing; HIV; lateral flow assay; upconverting nanoparticles; diagnostics; point of care
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martiskainen, I.; Juntunen, E.; Salminen, T.; Vuorenpää, K.; Bayoumy, S.; Vuorinen, T.; Khanna, N.; Pettersson, K.; Batra, G.; Talha, S.M. Double-Antigen Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Detection of Anti-HIV-1 and -2 Antibodies Using Upconverting Nanoparticle Reporters. Sensors 2021, 21, 330. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020330

AMA Style

Martiskainen I, Juntunen E, Salminen T, Vuorenpää K, Bayoumy S, Vuorinen T, Khanna N, Pettersson K, Batra G, Talha SM. Double-Antigen Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Detection of Anti-HIV-1 and -2 Antibodies Using Upconverting Nanoparticle Reporters. Sensors. 2021; 21(2):330. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020330

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martiskainen, Iida, Etvi Juntunen, Teppo Salminen, Karoliina Vuorenpää, Sherif Bayoumy, Tytti Vuorinen, Navin Khanna, Kim Pettersson, Gaurav Batra, and Sheikh M. Talha 2021. "Double-Antigen Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Detection of Anti-HIV-1 and -2 Antibodies Using Upconverting Nanoparticle Reporters" Sensors 21, no. 2: 330. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020330

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