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Article

Development and Evaluation of an Improved Apparatus for Measuring the Emissivity at High Temperatures

1
Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), 97074 Wuerzburg, Germany
2
Institute Digital Engineering (IDEE), University of Applied Science Wuerzburg-Schweinfurt (FHWS), 97421 Schweinfurt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angelo Sampaolo
Sensors 2021, 21(18), 6252; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186252
Received: 4 August 2021 / Revised: 9 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opto-Thermal Sensor Technologies)
An improved apparatus for measuring the spectral directional emissivity in the wavelength range between 1 µm and 20 µm at temperatures up to 2400 K is presented in this paper. As a heating unit an inductor is used to warm up the specimen, as well as the blackbody reference to the specified temperatures. The heating unit is placed in a double-walled vacuum vessel. A defined temperature, as well as a homogenous temperature distribution of the whole surrounding is ensured by a heat transfer fluid flowing through the gap of the double-walled vessel. Additionally, the surrounding is coated with a high-emitting paint and serves as blackbody-like surrounding to ensure defined boundary conditions. For measuring the spectral directional emissivity at different emission angles, a movable mirror is installed in front of the specimen, which can be adjusted by a rotatable arrangement guiding the emitted radiation into the attached FTIR-spectrometer. The setup of the emissivity measurement apparatus (EMMA) and the measurement procedure are introduced, and the derived measurement results are presented. For evaluating the apparatus, measurements were performed on different materials. The determined emissivities agree well with values published in literature within the derived relative uncertainties below 4% for most wavelengths. View Full-Text
Keywords: emissivity; reflectivity; infrared radiation; high temperature; FTIR-spectrometer; blackbody; uncertainty; X-point; inductive heating; direct radiative method emissivity; reflectivity; infrared radiation; high temperature; FTIR-spectrometer; blackbody; uncertainty; X-point; inductive heating; direct radiative method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arduini, M.; Manara, J.; Stark, T.; Ebert, H.-P.; Hartmann, J. Development and Evaluation of an Improved Apparatus for Measuring the Emissivity at High Temperatures. Sensors 2021, 21, 6252. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186252

AMA Style

Arduini M, Manara J, Stark T, Ebert H-P, Hartmann J. Development and Evaluation of an Improved Apparatus for Measuring the Emissivity at High Temperatures. Sensors. 2021; 21(18):6252. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186252

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arduini, Mariacarla, Jochen Manara, Thomas Stark, Hans-Peter Ebert, and Jürgen Hartmann. 2021. "Development and Evaluation of an Improved Apparatus for Measuring the Emissivity at High Temperatures" Sensors 21, no. 18: 6252. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186252

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