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Article

Flexible Recruitments of Fundamental Muscle Synergies in the Trunk and Lower Limbs for Highly Variable Movements and Postures

1
Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
2
Department of Physical Therapy, Tokyo University of Technology, Ota, Tokyo 144-8535, Japan
3
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0083, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ernest N. Kamavuako
Sensors 2021, 21(18), 6186; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186186
Received: 21 July 2021 / Revised: 8 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 15 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue On the Applications of EMG Sensors and Signals)
The extent to which muscle synergies represent the neural control of human behavior remains unknown. Here, we tested whether certain sets of muscle synergies that are fundamentally necessary across behaviors exist. We measured the electromyographic activities of 26 muscles, including bilateral trunk and lower limb muscles, during 24 locomotion, dynamic and static stability tasks, and we extracted the muscle synergies using non-negative matrix factorization. Our results show that 13 muscle synergies that may have unique functional roles accounted for almost all 24 tasks by combinations of single and/or merging of synergies. Therefore, our results may support the notion of the low dimensionality in motor outputs, in which the central nervous system flexibly recruits fundamental muscle synergies to execute diverse human behaviors. Further studies are required to validate the neural representation of the fundamental components of muscle synergies. View Full-Text
Keywords: muscle synergies; movements; postures; the central nervous system; motor control; the neural control muscle synergies; movements; postures; the central nervous system; motor control; the neural control
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.5495904
    Link: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5495904
    Description: Figure S1: Relationship between muscle synergies of all tasks and muscle synergies for other locomotion tasks Figure S2: Relationship between muscle synergies of all tasks and muscle synergies for other stability tasks Figure S3: Functional contributions of muscle synergies of all tasks (fundamental muscle synergies) for walking and running Table S1: Full descriptions of movement and postural tasks Table S2: Summary of results for the mean number of synergies, mean VAF of each task in the subjects, and the degree of similarity within each synergy cluster of each task across subjects Table S3: Recruitment coefficients of 13 synergy clusters of all tasks for each task execution
MDPI and ACS Style

Saito, H.; Yokoyama, H.; Sasaki, A.; Kato, T.; Nakazawa, K. Flexible Recruitments of Fundamental Muscle Synergies in the Trunk and Lower Limbs for Highly Variable Movements and Postures. Sensors 2021, 21, 6186. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186186

AMA Style

Saito H, Yokoyama H, Sasaki A, Kato T, Nakazawa K. Flexible Recruitments of Fundamental Muscle Synergies in the Trunk and Lower Limbs for Highly Variable Movements and Postures. Sensors. 2021; 21(18):6186. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186186

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saito, Hiroki, Hikaru Yokoyama, Atsushi Sasaki, Tatsuya Kato, and Kimitaka Nakazawa. 2021. "Flexible Recruitments of Fundamental Muscle Synergies in the Trunk and Lower Limbs for Highly Variable Movements and Postures" Sensors 21, no. 18: 6186. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186186

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