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Article

Reliability and Validity of the CORE Sensor to Assess Core Body Temperature during Cycling Exercise

1
Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Östersund, Sweden
2
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, 6310 Izola, Slovenia
3
Department of Automation, Biocybernetics, and Robotics, Jozef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
Human Performance Centre, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
5
Department of Health, Medicine, and Rehabilitation, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
6
Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Toshiyo Tamura
Sensors 2021, 21(17), 5932; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175932
Received: 19 July 2021 / Revised: 23 August 2021 / Accepted: 2 September 2021 / Published: 3 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Monitoring core body temperature (Tc) during training and competitions, especially in a hot environment, can help enhance an athlete’s performance, as well as lower the risk for heat stroke. Accordingly, a noninvasive sensor that allows reliable monitoring of Tc would be highly beneficial in this context. One such novel non-invasive sensor was recently introduced onto the market (CORE, greenTEG, Rümlang, Switzerland), but, to our knowledge, a validation study of this device has not yet been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the CORE sensor. In Study I, 12 males were subjected to a low-to-moderate heat load by performing, on two separate occasions several days apart, two identical 60-min bouts of steady-state cycling in the laboratory at 19 °C and 30% relative humidity. In Study II, 13 males were subjected to moderate-to-high heat load by performing 90 min of cycling in the laboratory at 31 °C and 39% relative humidity. In both cases the core body temperatures indicated by the CORE sensor were compared to the corresponding values obtained using a rectal sensor (Trec). The first major finding was that the reliability of the CORE sensor is acceptable, since the mean bias between the two identical trials of exercise (0.02 °C) was not statistically significant. However, under both levels of heat load, the body temperature indicated by the CORE sensor did not agree well with Trec, with approximately 50% of all paired measurements differing by more than the predefined threshold for validity of ≤0.3 °C. In conclusion, the results obtained do not support the manufacturer’s claim that the CORE sensor provides a valid measure of core body temperature. View Full-Text
Keywords: validity; reliability; core body temperature; rectal temperature; CORE sensor; cycling; non-invasive validity; reliability; core body temperature; rectal temperature; CORE sensor; cycling; non-invasive
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MDPI and ACS Style

Verdel, N.; Podlogar, T.; Ciuha, U.; Holmberg, H.-C.; Debevec, T.; Supej, M. Reliability and Validity of the CORE Sensor to Assess Core Body Temperature during Cycling Exercise. Sensors 2021, 21, 5932. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175932

AMA Style

Verdel N, Podlogar T, Ciuha U, Holmberg H-C, Debevec T, Supej M. Reliability and Validity of the CORE Sensor to Assess Core Body Temperature during Cycling Exercise. Sensors. 2021; 21(17):5932. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175932

Chicago/Turabian Style

Verdel, Nina, Tim Podlogar, Urša Ciuha, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Tadej Debevec, and Matej Supej. 2021. "Reliability and Validity of the CORE Sensor to Assess Core Body Temperature during Cycling Exercise" Sensors 21, no. 17: 5932. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175932

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