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Article

Compressional-Wave Effects in the Operation of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance in Liquids:Dependence on Overtone Order

1
Institute of Electrical Information Technology, Clausthal University of Technology, Leibnizstr. 28, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany
2
Institute of Energy Research and Physical Technologies, Clausthal University of Technology, Am Stollen 19B, D-38640 Goslar, Germany
3
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Clausthal University of Technology, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Str. 4, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092535
Received: 6 April 2020 / Revised: 23 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 29 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
The operation of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in liquids is plagued by small flexural admixtures to the thickness-shear deformation. The resonator surface moves not only in the transverse direction, but also along the surface normal, thereby emitting compressional waves into the liquid. Using a simple analytical model and laser Doppler vibrometry, we show that the flexural admixtures are stronger on the fundamental mode than on the overtones. The normal amplitude of motion amounts to about 1% of the transverse motion on the fundamental mode. This ratio drops by a factor of two on the overtones. A similar dependence on overtone order is observed in experiments, where the resonator is immersed in a liquid and faces an opposite planar wall, the distance of which varies. Standing compressional waves occur at certain distances. The amplitudes of these are smaller on the overtones than on the fundamental mode. The findings can be rationalized with the tensor form of the small-load approximation. View Full-Text
Keywords: quartz crystal microbalance; QCM; thickness-shear resonator; vibration analysis; laser-Doppler vibrometry; flexural motion; compressional waves quartz crystal microbalance; QCM; thickness-shear resonator; vibration analysis; laser-Doppler vibrometry; flexural motion; compressional waves
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kowarsch, R.; Suhak, Y.; Eduarte, L.C.; Mansour, M.; Meyer, F.; Peschel, A.; Fritze, H.; Rembe, C.; Johannsmann, D. Compressional-Wave Effects in the Operation of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance in Liquids:Dependence on Overtone Order. Sensors 2020, 20, 2535. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092535

AMA Style

Kowarsch R, Suhak Y, Eduarte LC, Mansour M, Meyer F, Peschel A, Fritze H, Rembe C, Johannsmann D. Compressional-Wave Effects in the Operation of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance in Liquids:Dependence on Overtone Order. Sensors. 2020; 20(9):2535. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092535

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kowarsch, Robert, Yuriy Suhak, Lucia C. Eduarte, Mohammad Mansour, Frederick Meyer, Astrid Peschel, Holger Fritze, Christian Rembe, and Diethelm Johannsmann. 2020. "Compressional-Wave Effects in the Operation of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance in Liquids:Dependence on Overtone Order" Sensors 20, no. 9: 2535. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092535

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