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Open AccessArticle

Combined Long-Period Fiber Grating and Microcavity In-Line Mach–Zehnder Interferometer for Refractive Index Measurements with Limited Cross-Sensitivity

1
Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa, Poland
2
Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
3
The National Institute of Telecommunications, Szachowa 1, 04-894 Warszawa, Poland
4
Centre de Recherche en Photonique, Université du Québec en Outaouais, 101 Rue St Jean Bosco Gatineau, Gatineau, QC J8X 3X7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of Monika Janik; Marcin Koba; Predrag Mikulic; Wojtek J. Bock; Mateusz Śmietana, Combined long-period grating and micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractive index sensing, 25th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Jeju, Korea, 23 April 2017.
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2431; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082431
Received: 15 March 2020 / Revised: 16 April 2020 / Accepted: 23 April 2020 / Published: 24 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fiber Sensors for Biomedical Applications)
This work discusses sensing properties of a long-period grating (LPG) and microcavity in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer (µIMZI) when both are induced in the same single-mode optical fiber. LPGs were either etched or nanocoated with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) to increase its refractive index (RI) sensitivity up to ≈2000 and 9000 nm/RIU, respectively. The µIMZI was machined using a femtosecond laser as a cylindrical cavity (d = 60 μm) in the center of the LPG. In transmission measurements for various RI in the cavity and around the LPG we observed two effects coming from the two independently working sensors. This dual operation had no significant impact on either of the devices in terms of their functional properties, especially in a lower RI range. Moreover, due to the properties of combined sensors two major effects can be distinguished—sensitivity to the RI of the volume and sensitivity to the RI at the surface. Considering also the negligible temperature sensitivity of the µIMZI, it makes the combination of LPG and µIMZI sensors a promising approach to limit cross-sensitivity or tackle simultaneous measurements of multiple effects with high efficiency and reliability. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI); long-period grating (LPG); optical fiber sensors; refractive index sensing; femtosecond laser micromachining; thin films; multiparameter sensing; cross-sensitivity Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI); long-period grating (LPG); optical fiber sensors; refractive index sensing; femtosecond laser micromachining; thin films; multiparameter sensing; cross-sensitivity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Janik, M.; Koba, M.; Król, K.; Mikulic, P.; Bock, W.J.; Śmietana, M. Combined Long-Period Fiber Grating and Microcavity In-Line Mach–Zehnder Interferometer for Refractive Index Measurements with Limited Cross-Sensitivity. Sensors 2020, 20, 2431. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082431

AMA Style

Janik M, Koba M, Król K, Mikulic P, Bock WJ, Śmietana M. Combined Long-Period Fiber Grating and Microcavity In-Line Mach–Zehnder Interferometer for Refractive Index Measurements with Limited Cross-Sensitivity. Sensors. 2020; 20(8):2431. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082431

Chicago/Turabian Style

Janik, Monika; Koba, Marcin; Król, Krystian; Mikulic, Predrag; Bock, Wojtek J.; Śmietana, Mateusz. 2020. "Combined Long-Period Fiber Grating and Microcavity In-Line Mach–Zehnder Interferometer for Refractive Index Measurements with Limited Cross-Sensitivity" Sensors 20, no. 8: 2431. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082431

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