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Open AccessArticle

Collaborative Analysis on the Marked Ages of Rice Wines by Electronic Tongue and Nose based on Different Feature Data Sets

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Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, 1158 Baiyang Street, Hangzhou 310018, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041065
Received: 11 November 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Aroma and taste are the most important attributes of alcoholic beverages. In the study, the self-developed electronic tongue (e-tongue) and electronic nose (e-nose) were used for evaluating the marked ages of rice wines. Six types of feature data sets (e-tongue data set, e-nose data set, direct-fusion data set, weighted-fusion data set, optimized direct-fusion data set, and optimized weighted-fusion data set) were used for identifying rice wines with different wine ages. Pearson coefficient analysis and variance inflation factor (VIF) analysis were used to optimize the fusion matrixes by removing the multicollinear information. Two types of discrimination methods (principal component analysis (PCA) and locality preserving projections (LPP)) were used for classifying rice wines, and LPP performed better than PCA in the discrimination work. The best result was obtained by LPP based on the weighted-fusion data set, and all the samples could be classified clearly in the LPP plot. Therefore, the weighted-fusion data were used as independent variables of partial least squares regression, extreme learning machine, and support vector machines (LIBSVM) for evaluating wine ages, respectively. All the methods performed well with good prediction results, and LIBSVM presented the best correlation coefficient (R2 ≥ 0.9998). View Full-Text
Keywords: e-tongue; e-nose; rice wine; modified electrodes; smartphone e-tongue; e-nose; rice wine; modified electrodes; smartphone
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Zhang, H.; Shao, W.; Qiu, S.; Wang, J.; Wei, Z. Collaborative Analysis on the Marked Ages of Rice Wines by Electronic Tongue and Nose based on Different Feature Data Sets. Sensors 2020, 20, 1065.

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