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Letter

Temperature Correction to Enhance Blood Glucose Monitoring Accuracy Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

1
School of Mechanical Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005, Korea
2
Department of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005, Korea
3
Healthcare Sensor Lab, Device Research Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi-do 16678, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6231; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216231
Received: 1 September 2020 / Revised: 23 October 2020 / Accepted: 24 October 2020 / Published: 31 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors-Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
Electrical methods are among the primarily studied non-invasive glucose measurement techniques; however, various factors affect the accuracy of the sensors used. Of these, the temperature is a critical factor; hence, the effects of temperature on the electrical properties of blood components are investigated in this study. Furthermore, the changes in the electrical properties of blood according to the glucose level are corrected by considering the effects of temperature on the electrical properties. An impedance sensor is developed and used to measure whole blood impedance in 10 healthy participants at various temperatures and glucose levels. Subsequently, the conductivities of the plasma and cytoplasm were extracted. Changes in the electrical properties of the blood components are then analyzed using linear regression and repeated measures ANOVA. The electrical conductivities of plasma and cytoplasm increased with increasing temperatures (plasma: 0.0397 (slope), 0.7814 (R2), cytoplasm: 0.014 (slope), 0.694 (R2)). At three values of increasing glucose levels (85.4, 158.1, and 271.8 mg/dL), the electrical conductivities of the plasma and cytoplasm decreased. These tendencies are more significant upon temperature corrections (p-values; plasma: 0.001, 0.001, cytoplasm: 0.003, 0.002). The relationships between temperature and electrical conductivity changes can thus be used for temperature corrections in blood glucose measurement. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood impedance; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; electrical properties; blood glucose measurement; temperature correction blood impedance; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; electrical properties; blood glucose measurement; temperature correction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, Y.S.; Son, M.; Zhbanov, A.; Jung, Y.; Jung, M.H.; Eom, K.; Nam, S.H.; Park, J.; Yang, S. Temperature Correction to Enhance Blood Glucose Monitoring Accuracy Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. Sensors 2020, 20, 6231. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216231

AMA Style

Lee YS, Son M, Zhbanov A, Jung Y, Jung MH, Eom K, Nam SH, Park J, Yang S. Temperature Correction to Enhance Blood Glucose Monitoring Accuracy Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. Sensors. 2020; 20(21):6231. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216231

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Ye S.; Son, Minkook; Zhbanov, Alexander; Jung, Yugyung; Jung, Myoung H.; Eom, Kunsun; Nam, Sung H.; Park, Jongae; Yang, Sung. 2020. "Temperature Correction to Enhance Blood Glucose Monitoring Accuracy Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy" Sensors 20, no. 21: 6231. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216231

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