Over the past few decades, interest in theories and algorithms for face recognition has been growing rapidly. Video surveillance, criminal identification, building access control, and unmanned and autonomous vehicles are just a few examples of concrete applications that are gaining attraction among industries. Various techniques are being developed including local, holistic, and hybrid approaches, which provide a face image description using only a few face image features or the whole facial features. The main contribution of this survey is to review some well-known techniques for each approach and to give the taxonomy of their categories. In the paper, a detailed comparison between these techniques is exposed by listing the advantages and the disadvantages of their schemes in terms of robustness, accuracy, complexity, and discrimination. One interesting feature mentioned in the paper is about the database used for face recognition. An overview of the most commonly used databases, including those of supervised and unsupervised learning, is given. Numerical results of the most interesting techniques are given along with the context of experiments and challenges handled by these techniques. Finally, a solid discussion is given in the paper about future directions in terms of techniques to be used for face recognition.
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