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Review

A Review of Measurement Calibration and Interpretation for Seepage Monitoring by Optical Fiber Distributed Temperature Sensors

1
Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Jamova cesta 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Veveří 331/95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(19), 5696; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20195696
Received: 2 September 2020 / Revised: 26 September 2020 / Accepted: 1 October 2020 / Published: 6 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Sensors and Their Applications)
Seepage flow through embankment dams and their sub-base is a crucial safety concern that can initiate internal erosion of the structure. The thermometric method of seepage monitoring employs the study of heat transfer characteristics in the soils, as the temperature distribution in earth-filled structures can be influenced by the presence of seepage. Thus, continuous temperature measurements can allow detection of seepage flows. With the recent advances in optical fiber temperature sensor technology, accurate and fast temperature measurements, with relatively high spatial resolution, have been made possible using optical fiber distributed temperature sensors (DTSs). As with any sensor system, to obtain a precise temperature, the DTS measurements need to be calibrated. DTS systems automatically calibrate the measurements using an internal thermometer and reference section. Additionally, manual calibration techniques have been developed which are discussed in this paper. The temperature data do not provide any direct information about the seepage, and this requires further processing and analysis. Several methods have been developed to interpret the temperature data for the localization of the seepage and in some cases to estimate the seepage quantity. An efficient DTS application in seepage monitoring strongly depends on the following factors: installation approach, calibration technique, along with temperature data interpretation and post-processing. This paper reviews the different techniques for calibration of DTS measurements as well as the methods of interpretation of the temperature data. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical fiber DTS; temperature; seepage; calibration; data interpretation optical fiber DTS; temperature; seepage; calibration; data interpretation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghafoori, Y.; Vidmar, A.; Říha, J.; Kryžanowski, A. A Review of Measurement Calibration and Interpretation for Seepage Monitoring by Optical Fiber Distributed Temperature Sensors. Sensors 2020, 20, 5696. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20195696

AMA Style

Ghafoori Y, Vidmar A, Říha J, Kryžanowski A. A Review of Measurement Calibration and Interpretation for Seepage Monitoring by Optical Fiber Distributed Temperature Sensors. Sensors. 2020; 20(19):5696. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20195696

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ghafoori, Yaser, Andrej Vidmar, Jaromír Říha, and Andrej Kryžanowski. 2020. "A Review of Measurement Calibration and Interpretation for Seepage Monitoring by Optical Fiber Distributed Temperature Sensors" Sensors 20, no. 19: 5696. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20195696

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