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Open AccessArticle

A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Intelligent Charge Scheduling Method for Commercial Smart Parking Lots Using a Simplified Convex Relaxation Technique

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, CUI Lahore Campus, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, CUI Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
3
Department of Electrical Power Engineering & Mechatronics, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
4
Department of Computer Science, CUI Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
5
Department of Computer Science, Qassim University, Al Qassim 1162, Saudi Arabia
6
Department of Operations Technology, Events and Technology Management, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M15 6BH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4842; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174842
Received: 13 June 2020 / Revised: 25 July 2020 / Accepted: 26 July 2020 / Published: 27 August 2020
Deployment of efficient and cost-effective parking lots is a known bottleneck for the electric vehicles (EVs) sector. A comprehensive solution incorporating the requirements of all key stakeholders is required. Taking up the challenge, we propose a real-time EV smart parking lot model to attain the following objectives: (a) maximize the smart parking lot revenue by accommodating maximum number of EVs and (b) minimize the cost of power consumption by participating in a demand response (DR) program offered by the utility since it is a tool to answer and handle the electric power usage requirements for charging the EV in the smart parking lot. With a view to achieving these objectives, a linear programming-based binary/cyclic (0/1) optimization technique is developed for the EV charge scheduling process. It is difficult to solve the problems of binary optimization in real-time given that the complexity of the problem increases with the increase in number of EV. We deploy a simplified convex relaxation technique integrated with the linear programming solution to overcome this problem. The algorithm achieves: minimum power consumption cost of the EV smart parking lot; efficient utilization of available power; maximization of the number of the EV to be charged; and minimum impact on the EV battery lifecycle. DR participation provide benefits by offering time-based and incentive-based hourly intelligent charging schedules for the EV. A thorough comparison is drawn with existing variable charging rate-based techniques in order to demonstrate the comparative validity of our proposed technique. The simulation results show that even under no DR event, the proposed scheme results in 2.9% decrease in overall power consumption cost for a 500 EV scenario when compared to variable charging rate method. Moreover, in similar conditions, such as no DR event and for 500 EV arrived per day, there is a 2.8% increase in number of EV charged per day, 3.2% improvement in the average state-of-charge (SoC) of the EV, 12.47% reduction in the average time intervals required to achieve final SoC. View Full-Text
Keywords: intelligent charging; demand response; electric vehicle; linear programming; optimization; smart parking; smart grid intelligent charging; demand response; electric vehicle; linear programming; optimization; smart parking; smart grid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jawad, M.; Qureshi, M.B.; Ali, S.M.; Shabbir, N.; Khan, M.U.S.; Aloraini, A.; Nawaz, R. A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Intelligent Charge Scheduling Method for Commercial Smart Parking Lots Using a Simplified Convex Relaxation Technique. Sensors 2020, 20, 4842. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174842

AMA Style

Jawad M, Qureshi MB, Ali SM, Shabbir N, Khan MUS, Aloraini A, Nawaz R. A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Intelligent Charge Scheduling Method for Commercial Smart Parking Lots Using a Simplified Convex Relaxation Technique. Sensors. 2020; 20(17):4842. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174842

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jawad, Muhammad; Qureshi, Muhammad B.; Ali, Sahibzada M.; Shabbir, Noman; Khan, Muhammad U.S.; Aloraini, Afnan; Nawaz, Raheel. 2020. "A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Intelligent Charge Scheduling Method for Commercial Smart Parking Lots Using a Simplified Convex Relaxation Technique" Sensors 20, no. 17: 4842. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174842

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