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Open AccessArticle

Fully Convolutional Deep Neural Networks with Optimized Hyperparameters for Detection of Shockable and Non-Shockable Rhythms

1
Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str. Bl 105, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
2
Schiller Médical, 4 Rue Louis Pasteur, 67160 Wissembourg, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2875; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20102875
Received: 19 April 2020 / Revised: 13 May 2020 / Accepted: 15 May 2020 / Published: 19 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in ECG Monitoring)
Deep neural networks (DNN) are state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms that can be learned to self-extract significant features of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and can generally provide high-output diagnostic accuracy if subjected to robust training and optimization on large datasets at high computational cost. So far, limited research and optimization of DNNs in shock advisory systems is found on large ECG arrhythmia databases from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA). The objective of this study is to optimize the hyperparameters (HPs) of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) for detection of shockable (Sh) and nonshockable (NSh) rhythms, and to validate the best HP settings for short and long analysis durations (2–10 s). Large numbers of (Sh + NSh) ECG samples were used for training (720 + 3170) and validation (739 + 5921) from Holters and defibrillators in OHCA. An end-to-end deep CNN architecture was implemented with one-lead raw ECG input layer (5 s, 125 Hz, 2.5 uV/LSB), configurable number of 5 to 23 hidden layers and output layer with diagnostic probability p ∈ [0: Sh,1: NSh]. The hidden layers contain N convolutional blocks × 3 layers (Conv1D (filters = Fi, kernel size = Ki), max-pooling (pool size = 2), dropout (rate = 0.3)), one global max-pooling and one dense layer. Random search optimization of HPs = {N, Fi, Ki}, i = 1, … N in a large grid of N = [1, 2, … 7], Fi = [5;50], Ki = [5;100] was performed. During training, the model with maximal balanced accuracy BAC = (Sensitivity + Specificity)/2 over 400 epochs was stored. The optimization principle is based on finding the common HPs space of a few top-ranked models and prediction of a robust HP setting by their median value. The optimal models for 1–7 CNN layers were trained with different learning rates LR = [10−5; 10−2] and the best model was finally validated on 2–10 s analysis durations. A number of 4216 random search models were trained. The optimal models with more than three convolutional layers did not exhibit substantial differences in performance BAC = (99.31–99.5%). Among them, the best model was found with {N = 5, Fi = {20, 15, 15, 10, 5}, Ki = {10, 10, 10, 10, 10}, 7521 trainable parameters} with maximal validation performance for 5-s analysis (BAC = 99.5%, Se = 99.6%, Sp = 99.4%) and tolerable drop in performance (<2% points) for very short 2-s analysis (BAC = 98.2%, Se = 97.6%, Sp = 98.7%). DNN application in future-generation shock advisory systems can improve the detection performance of Sh and NSh rhythms and can considerably shorten the analysis duration complying with resuscitation guidelines for minimal hands-off pauses. View Full-Text
Keywords: ECG; deep learning; convolutional neural networks; shock advisory system; life-threatening arrhythmias; ventricular fibrillation; out-of-hospital cardiac arrest ECG; deep learning; convolutional neural networks; shock advisory system; life-threatening arrhythmias; ventricular fibrillation; out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
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Krasteva, V.; Ménétré, S.; Didon, J.-P.; Jekova, I. Fully Convolutional Deep Neural Networks with Optimized Hyperparameters for Detection of Shockable and Non-Shockable Rhythms. Sensors 2020, 20, 2875.

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