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Sensors 2019, 19(3), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030510

Exploiting Layered Multi-Path Routing Protocols to Avoid Void Hole Regions for Reliable Data Delivery and Efficient Energy Management for IoT-Enabled Underwater WSNs

1
School of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia
2
Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
3
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
4
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897, Korea
5
Wah Campus, COMSATS University Islamabad, Wah Cantonment 47040, Pakistan
6
Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

The key concerns to enhance the lifetime of IoT-enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (IoT-UWSNs) are energy-efficiency and reliable data delivery under constrained resource. Traditional transmission approaches increase the communication overhead, which results in congestion and affect the reliable data delivery. Currently, many routing protocols have been proposed for UWSNs to ensure reliable data delivery and to conserve the node’s battery with minimum communication overhead (by avoiding void holes in the network). In this paper, adaptive energy-efficient routing protocols are proposed to tackle the aforementioned problems using the Shortest Path First (SPF) with least number of active nodes strategy. These novel protocols have been developed by integrating the prominent features of Forward Layered Multi-path Power Control One (FLMPC-One) routing protocol, which uses 2-hop neighbor information, Forward Layered Multi-path Power Control Two (FLMPC-Two) routing protocol, which uses 3-hop neighbor information and ’Dijkstra’ algorithm (for shortest path selection). Different Packet Sizes (PSs) with different Data Rates (DRs) are also taken into consideration to check the dynamicity of the proposed protocols. The achieved outcomes clearly validate the proposed protocols, namely: Shortest Path First using 3-hop neighbors information (SPF-Three) and Breadth First Search with Shortest Path First using 3-hop neighbors information (BFS-SPF-Three). Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed protocols in terms of minimum Energy Consumption (EC) and Required Packet Error Rate (RPER) with a minimum number of active nodes at the cost of affordable delay. View Full-Text
Keywords: retransmission; energy efficient; void hole; energy hole; multi-path layered approach; cross nodes; reliable data delivery retransmission; energy efficient; void hole; energy hole; multi-path layered approach; cross nodes; reliable data delivery
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Butt, S.A.; Bakar, K.A.; Javaid, N.; Gharaei, N.; Ishmanov, F.; Afzal, M.K.; Mehmood, M.K.; Mujahid, M.A. Exploiting Layered Multi-Path Routing Protocols to Avoid Void Hole Regions for Reliable Data Delivery and Efficient Energy Management for IoT-Enabled Underwater WSNs. Sensors 2019, 19, 510.

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