Phase difference measurement of sinusoidal signals can be used for phase error calibration of the spaceborne single-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) system. However, there are currently very few papers devoted to the discussion of phase difference measurement of high-frequency internal calibration signals of the InSAR system, especially the discussion of sampling frequency selection and the corresponding measuring method when the high-frequency signals are sampled under the under-sampling condition. To solve this problem, a phase difference measurement method for high-frequency sinusoidal signals is proposed, and the corresponding sampling frequency selection criteria under the under-sampling condition is determined. First, according to the selection criteria, the appropriate under-sampling frequency was chosen to sample the two sinusoidal signals with the same frequency. Then, the sampled signals were filtered by limited recursive average filtering (LRAF) and coherently accumulated in the cycle of the baseband signal. Third, the filtered and accumulated signals were used to calculate the phase difference of the two sinusoidal signals using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), digital correlation (DC), and Hilbert transform (HT)-based methods. Lastly, the measurement accuracy of the three methods were compared respectively by different simulation experiments. Theoretical analysis and experiments verified the effectiveness of the proposed method for the phase error calibration of the InSAR system.
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