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Open AccessReview

Electronic Tongues for Inedible Media

Institute of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, Mendeleev Center, Universitetskaya nab.7/9, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
Nanotechnology National Laboratory for Agriculture (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentação, São Carlos, SP 13560-970, Brazil
“Gleb Wataghin” Institute of Physics, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-859, Brazil
Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970, Brazil
São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, SP 13566-590, Brazil
Biosensor National Special Laboratory, Key Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Laboratory of Artificial Sensory Systems, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr, 49, 197101 St. Petersburg, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5113;
Received: 14 October 2019 / Revised: 12 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Tongues: Recent Strategies and Applications)
“Electronic tongues”, “taste sensors”, and similar devices (further named as “multisensor systems”, or MSS) have been studied and applied mostly for the analysis of edible analytes. This is not surprising, since the MSS development was sometimes inspired by the mainstream idea that they could substitute human gustatory tests. However, the basic principle behind multisensor systems—a combination of an array of cross-sensitive chemical sensors for liquid analysis and a machine learning engine for multivariate data processing—does not imply any limitations on the application of such systems for the analysis of inedible media. This review deals with the numerous MSS applications for the analysis of inedible analytes, among other things, for agricultural and medical purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic tongue; multisensor system; MSS; inedible media analysis electronic tongue; multisensor system; MSS; inedible media analysis
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Kirsanov, D.; Correa, D.S.; Gaal, G.; Riul, A.; Braunger, M.L.; Shimizu, F.M.; Oliveira, O.N.; Liang, T.; Wan, H.; Wang, P.; Oleneva, E.; Legin, A. Electronic Tongues for Inedible Media. Sensors 2019, 19, 5113.

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