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Open AccessArticle

QoSRP: A Cross-Layer QoS Channel-Aware Routing Protocol for the Internet of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

1
Department of Computer Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia
2
Department of Computer Engineering, Abdullah Gul University, Kayseri 38080, Turkey
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Department of Electronics Engineering, NED University of Engineering, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
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Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
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Department of Computer Science and Information, College of Science in Zulfi, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Computer Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
7
Department of Communication Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 8435088, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(21), 4762; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214762
Received: 11 September 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 2 November 2019
Quality of service (QoS)-aware data gathering in static-channel based underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) is severely limited due to location and time-dependent acoustic channel communication characteristics. This paper proposes a novel cross-layer QoS-aware multichannel routing protocol called QoSRP for the internet of UWSNs-based time-critical marine monitoring applications. The proposed QoSRP scheme considers the unique characteristics of the acoustic communication in highly dynamic network topology during gathering and relaying events data towards the sink. The proposed QoSRP scheme during the time-critical events data-gathering process employs three basic mechanisms, namely underwater channel detection (UWCD), underwater channel assignment (UWCA) and underwater packets forwarding (UWPF). The UWCD mechanism finds the vacant channels with a high probability of detection and low probability of missed detection and false alarms. The UWCA scheme assigns high data rates channels to acoustic sensor nodes (ASNs) with longer idle probability in a robust manner. Lastly, the UWPF mechanism during conveying information avoids congestion, data path loops and balances the data traffic load in UWSNs. The QoSRP scheme is validated through extensive simulations conducted by NS2 and AquaSim 2.0 in underwater environments (UWEs). The simulation results reveal that the QoSRP protocol performs better compared to existing routing schemes in UWSNs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internet of underwater things; channel aware; multichannel; acoustic sensor networks; underwater wireless sensor network Internet of underwater things; channel aware; multichannel; acoustic sensor networks; underwater wireless sensor network
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Faheem, M.; Butt, R.A.; Raza, B.; Alquhayz, H.; Ashraf, M.W.; Shah, S.B.; Ngadi, M.A.; Gungor, V.C. QoSRP: A Cross-Layer QoS Channel-Aware Routing Protocol for the Internet of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Sensors 2019, 19, 4762.

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