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Sensors 2019, 19(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020256

Reinforcement Learning-Based Data Forwarding in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks with Passive Mobility

Institute of Meteorology and Oceanography, National University of Defense Technology, Nanjing 211101, China
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Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Ocean: Emerging Research Advances, Prospects and Challenges)
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Abstract

Data forwarding for underwater wireless sensor networks has drawn large attention in the past decade. Due to the harsh underwater environments for communication, a major challenge of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) is the timeliness. Furthermore, underwater sensor nodes are energy constrained, so network lifetime is another obstruction. Additionally, the passive mobility of underwater sensors causes dynamical topology change of underwater networks. It is significant to consider the timeliness and energy consumption of data forwarding in UWSNs, along with the passive mobility of sensor nodes. In this paper, we first formulate the problem of data forwarding, by jointly considering timeliness and energy consumption under a passive mobility model for underwater wireless sensor networks. We then propose a reinforcement learning-based method for the problem. We finally evaluate the performance of the proposed method through simulations. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. Our method outperforms the benchmark protocols in both timeliness and energy efficiency. More specifically, our method gains 83.35% more value of information and saves up to 75.21% energy compared with a classic lifetime-extended routing protocol (QELAR). View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater wireless sensor networks; data forwarding; value of information; energy consumption; passive mobility; reinforcement learning underwater wireless sensor networks; data forwarding; value of information; energy consumption; passive mobility; reinforcement learning
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Chang, H.; Feng, J.; Duan, C. Reinforcement Learning-Based Data Forwarding in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks with Passive Mobility. Sensors 2019, 19, 256.

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