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Performance Analysis of Time Synchronization Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

1
School of Information and Communication Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea
2
The 2nd R&D Institute-Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon 34186, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 3020; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19133020
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract

The time synchronization protocol is indispensable in various applications of wireless sensor networks, such as scheduling, monitoring, and tracking. Numerous protocols and algorithms have been proposed in recent decades, and many of them provide micro-scale resolutions. However, designing and implementing a time synchronization protocol in a practical wireless network is very challenging compared to implementation in a wired network; this is because its performance can be deteriorated significantly by many factors, including hardware quality, message delay jitter, ambient environment, and network topology. In this study, we measure the performance of the Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol (FTSP) and Gradient Time Synchronization Protocol (GTSP) in terms of practical network conditions, such as message delay jitter, synchronization period, network topology, and packet loss. This study provides insights into the operation and optimization of time synchronization protocols. In addition, the performance evaluation identifies that FTSP is highly affected by message delay jitter due to error accumulation over multi-hops. We demonstrate that the proposed extended version of the FTSP (E-FTSP) alleviates the effect of message delay jitter and enhances the overall performance of FTSP in terms of error, time, and other factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: time synchronization; clock; performance analysis; message delay jitter; wireless sensor networks time synchronization; clock; performance analysis; message delay jitter; wireless sensor networks
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Phan, L.-A.; Kim, T.; Kim, T.; Lee, J.; Ham, J.-H. Performance Analysis of Time Synchronization Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2019, 19, 3020.

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