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Combining Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy with Chemometric Methods to Detect Adulterations in Milk Powder

1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2 and 1,2,*
1
College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Key Laboratory of Spectroscopy Sensing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Hangzhou 310058, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2934; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132934
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infrared Spectroscopy and Sensors)
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Abstract

Adulteration is one of the major concerns among all the quality problems of milk powder. Soybean flour and rice flour are harmless adulterations in the milk powder. In this study, mid-infrared spectroscopy was used to detect the milk powder adulterated with rice flour or soybean flour and simultaneously determine the adulterations content. Partial least squares (PLS), support vector machine (SVM) and extreme learning machine (ELM) were used to establish classification and regression models using full spectra and optimal wavenumbers. ELM models using the optimal wavenumbers selected by principal component analysis (PCA) loadings obtained good results with all the sensitivity and specificity over 90%. Regression models using the full spectra and the optimal wavenumbers selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA) obtained good results, with coefficient of determination (R2) of calibration and prediction all over 0.9 and the predictive residual deviation (RPD) over 3. The classification results of ELM models and the determination results of adulterations content indicated that the mid-infrared spectroscopy was an effective technique to detect the rice flour and soybean flour adulteration in the milk powder. This study would help to apply mid-infrared spectroscopy to the detection of adulterations such as rice flour and soybean flour in real-world conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk powder; rice flour; soybean flour; adulteration detection; mid-infrared spectroscopy milk powder; rice flour; soybean flour; adulteration detection; mid-infrared spectroscopy
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Feng, L.; Zhu, S.; Chen, S.; Bao, Y.; He, Y. Combining Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy with Chemometric Methods to Detect Adulterations in Milk Powder. Sensors 2019, 19, 2934.

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