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Sensors 2018, 18(11), 4079; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18114079

A 40-MHz Ultrasound Transducer with an Angled Aperture for Guiding Percutaneous Revascularization of Chronic Total Occlusion: A Feasibility Study

1
and
1,2,*
1
Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 04107, Korea
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 04107, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 18 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound Transducers)
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Abstract

Complete blockage of a coronary artery, called chronic total occlusion (CTO), frequently occurs due to atherosclerosis. To reopen the obstructed blood vessels with a stent, guidewire crossing is performed with the help of angiography that can provide the location of CTO lesions and the image of guidewire tip. Since angiography is incapable of imaging inside a CTO lesion, the surgeons are blind during guidewire crossing. For this reason, the success rate of guidewire crossing relies upon the proficiency of the surgeon, which is considerably reduced from 69.0% to 32.5% if extensive calcification, not penetrated by a guidewire, exists in CTO lesions. In this paper, a recently developed 40-MHz forward-looking intravascular ultrasound (FL–IVUS) transducer to visualize calcification within CTO lesions is reported. This transducer consists of a single element angled aperture and a guidewire passage. The aperture is spherically deformed to have a focal length of 3 mm in order to improve spatial resolution of FL–IVUS images. The angle between the beam direction and the axis of rotation is designed to be 30° to effectively visualize calcification within a CTO lesion as well as the blood vessel wall. The experimental results demonstrated that the developed FL–IVUS transducer facilitates visualization of calcification within CTO lesions and makes it possible to help the surgeon make decisions about whether to push the guidewire in order to cross the lesion or to change the surgical procedure. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic total occlusion; atherosclerosis; percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); guidewire crossing; intravascular ultrasound (IVUS); forward-looking IVUS; high-frequency ultrasound; ultrasound transducers chronic total occlusion; atherosclerosis; percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); guidewire crossing; intravascular ultrasound (IVUS); forward-looking IVUS; high-frequency ultrasound; ultrasound transducers
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lee, J.; Chang, J.H. A 40-MHz Ultrasound Transducer with an Angled Aperture for Guiding Percutaneous Revascularization of Chronic Total Occlusion: A Feasibility Study. Sensors 2018, 18, 4079.

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