# Improving the Error of Time Differences of Arrival on Partial Discharges Measurement in Gas-Insulated Switchgear

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Experimental Setup

## 3. TDoA Extraction

#### 3.1. Cross Correlation Function Method (CCF)

#### 3.2. Minimal Energy Method (ME)

#### 3.3. Threshold Value Method (TV)

## 4. Data Analysis

## 5. Improved Extraction Algorithm

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Installation of Ultra-High-Frequency (UHF) sensors on 1100 kV Gas-Insulated Switchgear (GIS) in the field. (

**a**) Overall installation; (

**b**) Partial details.

**Figure 3.**Phase-Resolved Pulse Sequence of the real Partial Discharge (PD) activity in Gas-Insulated Switchgear (GIS).

OCU Number | Cross-Correlation Function (CCF) | Minimal Energy (ME) | Threshold Value (TV) | |
---|---|---|---|---|

TDoA (ns) | TDoA (ns) | TDoA (ns) | ||

a | b | 8.80 | 9.24 | 17.98 |

7 | 8 | 24.00 | 31.89 | 29.75 |

7 | 11 | 21.58 | 70.39 | 128.00 |

8 | 22 | 8.80 | 147.92 | 161.60 |

8 | 18 | 8.00 | 182.30 | 207.5 |

Reference TDoA (ns) | Cross-Correlation Function (CCF) | Minimal Energy (ME) | Threshold Value (TV) | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

TDoA (ns) | Error (%) | Variance | TDoA (ns) | Error (%) | Variance | TDoA (ns) | Error (%) | Variance | |

10 | 8.80 | 12.00 | 0.15 | 9.24 | 7.60 | 0.01 | 17.98 | 79.80 | 0.08 |

27 | 24.00 | 11.11 | 31.89 | 18.11 | 29.75 | 10.19 | |||

100 | 21.58 | 78.42 | 70.39 | 29.61 | 128.03 | 28.03 | |||

150 | 8.80 | 94.13 | 147.92 | 1.39 | 161.60 | 7.73 | |||

200 | 8.00 | 96.00 | 182.30 | 8.85 | 207.5 | 3.75 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Jiang, J.; Wang, K.; Zhang, C.; Chen, M.; Zheng, H.; Albarracín, R.
Improving the Error of Time Differences of Arrival on Partial Discharges Measurement in Gas-Insulated Switchgear. *Sensors* **2018**, *18*, 4078.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s18114078

**AMA Style**

Jiang J, Wang K, Zhang C, Chen M, Zheng H, Albarracín R.
Improving the Error of Time Differences of Arrival on Partial Discharges Measurement in Gas-Insulated Switchgear. *Sensors*. 2018; 18(11):4078.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s18114078

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Jiang, Jun, Kai Wang, Chaohai Zhang, Min Chen, Hong Zheng, and Ricardo Albarracín.
2018. "Improving the Error of Time Differences of Arrival on Partial Discharges Measurement in Gas-Insulated Switchgear" *Sensors* 18, no. 11: 4078.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s18114078