# Application of an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter to Analyse the Performance of the Hydraulic Agitation System of an Agricultural Sprayer

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Experimental Design

#### 2.1. Tank Characteristics

#### 2.2. Agitation Nozzles

#### 2.3. Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter

#### 2.4. Fluid Velocity Measurements

#### 2.5. Efficiency of the Agitation System

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Effect of Independent Variables on Fluid Velocity

#### 3.2. Effect of Measurement Point Position

#### 3.3. Efficiency of the Agitation System

^{2}= 0.87; polynomial correlation, R

^{2}= 0.96), with higher velocity values associated with higher concentrations. The coefficient of variation for the oxychloride concentration was 5.07%, which is a good value showing a great uniformity, for all fill level and nozzle number configurations. This indicates that the working velocity range for 10-bar regulation (9.38 to 15.96 cm/s) was sufficient to ensure a suitable mixture in the tank.

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Geometry of the sprayer tank with a 3000 L of capacity. (

**a**) Exterior 3-dimensional (D) view; (

**b**) Internal longitudinal section, 2D view, with two interconnected parts. Dimensions in millimetres.

**Figure 2.**Geometry of the Venturi agitation nozzles. (

**a**) Longitudinal section; (

**b**) Three-dimensional (3D) view. Dimensions in millimetres.

**Figure 4.**(

**a**) Cross sections of where velocity measurements were made inside the tank (dimensions in millimeters); (

**b**) Velocity measurement points within each of the four sections.

**Figure 5.**Fluid velocity (mean ± 95% confidence interval) according to the level of water in the tank and pressures of the nozzle circuits.

**Figure 6.**Fluid velocity (mean ± 95% confidence interval) according to the level of water in the tank and the number of active nozzles.

**Figure 7.**Fluid velocity (mean ± 95% confidence interval) according to the level of water in the tank and the height of the measurement point.

**Figure 8.**Fluid velocity (mean ± 95% confidence interval) according to the level of water in the tank and the section of the measurement point.

**Figure 9.**Fluid velocity (mean ± 95% confidence interval) at the measurement points of the four sections (all data included).

**Figure 10.**Concentration of copper oxychloride as a function of the number of nozzles and the level of water in the tank. Pressure of the agitation system: 10 bar.

**Table 1.**Nominal flow rate provided by a single nozzle of the agitation system at different working pressures.

Pressure (bar) | Flow Rate (L/min) |
---|---|

8 | 8.48 |

10 | 9.52 |

12 | 10.41 |

**Table 2.**Technical characteristics of the 3D Sontek Micro acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) 16 MHz.

Parameter | Configuration |
---|---|

Sampling rate (Hz) | 0.1 to 50 |

Sampling volume (cm^{3}) | 0.09 |

Distance to sampling volume (cm) | 5.0 |

Resolution (cm/s) | 0.01 |

Programmable velocity range (cm/s) | 3, 10, 30, 100, 250 |

Accuracy | 1% of measured velocity, ± 0.25 m/s |

**Table 3.**Factorial design of experimental velocity measurements inside the tank according to the configuration variables and the location of the measurement.

Level of Water Inside the Tank (L) | Pressure (bar) | Number of Nozzles | Measurement Section (Figure 2) | Measurement Points in Each Section (Figure 2) | Height of the Measurement Point |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1000 | 8, 10, 12 | 2, 4 | s1, s2, s3, s4 | 1, 2 | h1 |

2000 | 8, 10, 12 | 2, 4 | s1, s2, s3, s4 | 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 | h1, h2 |

3000 | 8, 10, 12 | 2, 4 | s1, s2, s3, s4 | 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 | h1, h2, h3 |

**Table 4.**Kruskal-Wallis test. Effect of the independent variables (level of water inside the tank; pressure of the nozzle circuit; number of nozzles working simultaneously) on the fluid velocity.

Independent Variable | Settings | Dependent Variable | Chi-Square | Degrees of Freedom | Significance Level |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Level of water (L) | 1000, 2000, 3000 | Fluid velocity | 630.226 | 2 | <0.001 |

Pressure (bar) | 8, 10, 12 | 40.601 | 2 | <0.001 | |

Number of nozzles | 2, 4 | 99.886 | 1 | <0.001 |

**Table 5.**Kruskal-Wallis test. Effect of the variables related to the position of the measurement point (section, height, measurement point) on the fluid velocity.

Independent Variable | Settings | Dependent Variable | Chi-Square | Degrees of Freedom | Significance Level |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Measurement section | 1, 2, 3, 4 | Fluid velocity | 575.110 | 3 | <0.001 |

Height of the measurement point (mm) | 1 (370) 2 (650) 3 (930) | Fluid velocity | 78.422 | 2 | <0.001 |

Point of measurement | 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 | Fluid velocity | 286.155 | 7 | <0.001 |

**Table 6.**Univariate general linear model of the concentration of copper oxychloride according to the level of water into the tank (1000, 2000, 3000 L) and the number of nozzles (2, 4).

Origin | Sum of Squares | Degrees of Freedom | Root Mean Square | F | Significance |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Revised model | 0.013a | 5 | 0.003 | 19.663 | <0.001 |

Interception | 5.882 | 1 | 5.882 | 45,798.799 | <0.001 |

Tank level | 0.012 | 2 | 0.006 | 47.252 | <0.001 |

Nozzles | 0.000 | 1 | 0.000 | 2.954 | 0.099 |

Tank* nozzles | 0.000 | 2 | 5.487 × 10^{−5} | 0.427 | 0.657 |

Error | 0.003 | 24 | 0.000 | ||

Total | 5.898 | 30 | |||

Total corrected | 0.016 | 29 |

^{2}= 0.804 (Adjusted R

^{2}= 0.763).

**Table 7.**Fluid velocity inside the tank and concentration of copper oxychloride at the outlet of the sprayer as a function water level inside the tank and the number of activated nozzles.

Pressure (bar) | Level of Water Inside the Tank (L) | Number of Nozzles | Fluid Velocity (cm/s) | Copper Oxychloride Concentration (%) | Variation of Copper Oxychloride Concentration (%) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

10 | 1000 | 2 | 15.9693 | 0.4699 | 17.45 |

4 | 12.4986 | 0.4586 | 14.65 | ||

2000 | 2 | 13.1345 | 0.4522 | 13.05 | |

4 | 11.5460 | 0.4443 | 11.07 | ||

3000 | 2 | 9.9866 | 0.4169 | 4.22 | |

4 | 9.3831 | 0.4148 | 3.70 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

García-Ramos, F.J.; Badules, J.; Boné, A.; Gil, E.; Aguirre, A.J.; Vidal, M.
Application of an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter to Analyse the Performance of the Hydraulic Agitation System of an Agricultural Sprayer. *Sensors* **2018**, *18*, 3715.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113715

**AMA Style**

García-Ramos FJ, Badules J, Boné A, Gil E, Aguirre AJ, Vidal M.
Application of an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter to Analyse the Performance of the Hydraulic Agitation System of an Agricultural Sprayer. *Sensors*. 2018; 18(11):3715.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113715

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

García-Ramos, F. Javier, Jorge Badules, Antonio Boné, Emilio Gil, A. Javier Aguirre, and Mariano Vidal.
2018. "Application of an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter to Analyse the Performance of the Hydraulic Agitation System of an Agricultural Sprayer" *Sensors* 18, no. 11: 3715.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113715