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Open AccessReview

Electromagnetic–Acoustic Sensing for Biomedical Applications

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3203;
Received: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Medical Sensing)
PDF [6275 KB, uploaded 21 September 2018]


This paper reviews the theories and applications of electromagnetic–acoustic (EMA) techniques (covering light-induced photoacoustic, microwave-induced thermoacoustic, magnetic-modulated thermoacoustic, and X-ray-induced thermoacoustic) belonging to the more general area of electromagnetic (EM) hybrid techniques. The theories cover excitation of high-power EM field (laser, microwave, magnetic field, and X-ray) and subsequent acoustic wave generation. The applications of EMA methods include structural imaging, blood flowmetry, thermometry, dosimetry for radiation therapy, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) sensing, fingerprint imaging and sensing, glucose sensing, pH sensing, etc. Several other EM-related acoustic methods, including magnetoacoustic, magnetomotive ultrasound, and magnetomotive photoacoustic are also described. It is believed that EMA has great potential in both pre-clinical research and medical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: electromagnetic-acoustics; photoacoustic; thermoacoustic; biomedical sensing electromagnetic-acoustics; photoacoustic; thermoacoustic; biomedical sensing

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Liu, S.; Zhang, R.; Zheng, Z.; Zheng, Y. Electromagnetic–Acoustic Sensing for Biomedical Applications. Sensors 2018, 18, 3203.

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