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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010296

A GPS Phase-Locked Loop Performance Metric Based on the Phase Discriminator Output

Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago, IL 60616, USA
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Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Abstract

We propose a novel GPS phase-lock loop (PLL) performance metric based on the standard deviation of tracking error (defined as the discriminator’s estimate of the true phase error), and explain its advantages over the popular phase jitter metric using theory, numerical simulation, and experimental results. We derive an augmented GPS phase-lock loop (PLL) linear model, which includes the effect of coherent averaging, to be used in conjunction with this proposed metric. The augmented linear model allows more accurate calculation of tracking error standard deviation in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) as compared to traditional linear models. The standard deviation of tracking error, with a threshold corresponding to half of the arctangent discriminator pull-in region, is shown to be a more reliable/robust measure of PLL performance under interference conditions than the phase jitter metric. In addition, the augmented linear model is shown to be valid up until this threshold, which facilitates efficient performance prediction, so that time-consuming direct simulations and costly experimental testing can be reserved for PLL designs that are much more likely to be successful. The effect of varying receiver reference oscillator quality on the tracking error metric is also considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: navigation; GNSS; GPS; PLL; carrier tracking; tracking error; interference; wideband interference; oscillator; phase-noise navigation; GNSS; GPS; PLL; carrier tracking; tracking error; interference; wideband interference; oscillator; phase-noise
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Stevanovic, S.; Pervan, B. A GPS Phase-Locked Loop Performance Metric Based on the Phase Discriminator Output. Sensors 2018, 18, 296.

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