Energy-Efficient Hosting Rich Content from Mobile Platforms with Relative Proximity Sensing
2. Related Work
- Host over Wi-Fi: A simple solution is to host all the content over Wi-Fi. Mobile devices can keep the Wi-Fi interface turned on all the time, and beacon information about themselves. Nearby devices, which are in Wi-Fi range, can discover and access content over the Wi-Fi network. The advantage of this approach is that the Wi-Fi interface supports high throughput and large files can be downloaded very quickly. However, keeping the Wi-Fi interface in the on state all the time will quickly drain the battery of the device, thereby significantly impacting the user experience.
- Host over the Internet: An alternative is for mobile devices to transfer their content to a server on the Internet. In most cases, since users will want their data to be available instantaneously, this content will be uploaded over the cellular data interface as this connection is mostly available. Mobile devices also upload their location to the server. A query from a mobile device would then return all the nearby mobile devices and their content would be delivered over the Internet. This approach is similar to the ones used by Micro-Blogs .
3.2. Overview of Our Approach
4. On-Demand Wi-Fi Connection to Nearby Mobile Devices
4.1. Discovery and On-Demand Wi-Fi Activation
4.2. Establishing Connectivity
4.3. Predicting Wi-Fi Connectivity between Two Mobile Devices
4.4. Location-Update Adaptation Algorithm
5. Design of T-Wing
5.1. Hosting Content
5.2. Miniaturizing a Mobile Platform’s Content
5.3. Handling Multiple Clients
- IP-Address Management: As mentioned above, the proxy server assigns IP addresses to mobile devices upon request. If a second requestor device wants to access content from a mobile device that is already serving content, then the proxy server must not, of course, assign a new IP address to this device. Instead, this server device’s IP address is simply conveyed to the requestor, who can then access this device by connecting via Wi-Fi. In order to be able to assign the same IP address to a subsequent requestor, the server thus needs to keep track of the IP addresses that are currently in use, and more generally, it needs to know which device has its Wi-Fi in use, and which device does not. For this purpose, we use a concept of ‘IP-address leases’: a device, after having been assigned an IP address, needs to report to the proxy server whether it is still actively using its Wi-Fi radio. If the device does not renew its lease on time, the server knows that the Wi-Fi is no longer in use and returns the IP address to the pool.
- Content Proxying: If many mobile devices attempt to access the same content from the same device, this device may be unable to serve all requestors efficiently due to lack of bandwidth. In T-Wing, we use the concept of content proxying to alleviate this problem to some degree. Assume that three mobile devices A, B, and C access the same content from device S, but that A was the first to successfully complete the download because its request was issued before the two others. Now, when B and C request the same files, the device S can serve one of the requests itself, say request B, but it can also tell device C that C might be able to download the file faster from content proxy A. If device C is within Wi-Fi reach of device A, C can then request the file from A, rather than requesting it from the original device S directly, which enables the transfers from S to B, and from A to C to go in parallel, rather than having S serve both requestors B and C sequentially. In other words, T-Wing uses the concept of content proxying to opportunistically increase the fan-out of the serving device, and thus increase the overall distribution speed.
6. Architecture of T-Wing
- T-Wing Client: The architecture of a T-Wing client is illustrated in Figure 4. It has three main components: the service, management and network layers. The service layer implements the web server functionality, the network layer establishes the connection between nearby mobile platforms, and the management layer coordinates interactions between the two and also communicates with the T-Wing proxy server. For the service layer, we implemented our own version of a web server on the mobile platform. Since the processes of the web server on the mobile platform tend to consume a lot of memory as the number of parallel connections grows, it’s important to keep memory usage down. The web server on the mobile platform limited the maximum number of parallel connections to three for keeping a small memory footprint. The maximum number of parallel connections can be modified in the environment setting of T-Wing. The network layer provides a number of wrapping functions to set the IP address, IP routing table, and to enable/disable NIC. The management component reports the mobile platform’s location to the proxy server, and also communicates with it when the user requests to see nearby T-Wing users. Also, if a nearby mobile platform is interested in accessing content hosted on the mobile platform, the proxy server contacts the management framework to enable Wi-Fi and set up a network connection.
- T-Wing Proxy Server: The proxy server consists of a database and a web service. The database maintains the miniaturized web page for every object, its location and cellular signal strengths from base stations. The web service takes requests from clients, determines nearby mobile platforms and coordinates connectivity among the mobile platforms as described in the previous section. T-Wing proxy server is an indispensable component, which means that T-Wing clients cannot be operated in case that there is no coverage of cellular network. The main advantage of depending on the T-Wing proxy server is that users allow to host content from their mobile platform not only in an energy and but also in a cost-efficient manner. And data-intensive content can be downloaded directly from nearby mobile platforms using the high-bandwidth Wi-Fi interface.
- Nearby Searching: It allows users to search the available T-Wing objects near them. It uses signal fingerprint to get the nearby object’s information and shows the surrounding T-Wing objects. When a user has chosen the T-Wing object the user wants, the user can make a direct connection to the T-Wing host by coordinating with the T-Wing Proxy Server.
- T-Wing Web Browsing: T-Wing provides the user with two kind of connection options, enabling the user to see the miniaturized web page over cellular network or enabling the user to see the entire web page over direct Wi-Fi connection as shown in Figure 5e,f, respectively.
7. Evaluation of T-Wing
7.1. Uplink Bandwidth Requirement
7.2. Energy Overhead of Reporting Location
7.3. Accuracy of Wi-Fi Connectivity Prediction
7.4. Performance Evaluation
- Energy Consumption: To quantify the energy consumption of T-Wing, we measured the power consumption of the embedded platform. For this measurement, we assumed that 10 web page requests arrived per hour, and every user sends 10 location-based query and web page requests per hour. We assumed the size of every web page is 500 KB. Table 2 illustrates the power consumption of each state. The mobile platform expends severe battery power to keep its Wi-Fi interface on when it is broadcasting and communicating. Even when the Wi-Fi radio is connected, the device consumes more than about 10 times the battery power than in cellular network interface on. These numbers indicate that the total lifetime of a mobile platform can be significantly increased if the Wi-Fi radio is turned off most of the time. Figure 9 plots the total communication energy consumption for one hour and the battery life time for the various communication mode. It shows the energy consumed in the wireless interface (Wi-Fi and Cellular network), compared to the energy consumption when utilizing T-Wing. Our base comparison is using the Wi-Fi in always on mode for the mobile platform. We save up to 95% of the energy consumption compared to always Wi-Fi or the periodic Wi-Fi mode.
- Response Time: We compare the response time of T-Wing when serving requests compared to an alternative implementation in which the web content is hosted in the cloud, and downloaded using the cellular network. Figure 10 illustrates the response time when varying the number of concurrent requests per second. There is not much difference when the content is small. However, the time to download content over cellular networks is significantly more for larger sized content.
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|Content Type||Compression Strategy|
|Text||Compression by LZO|
|Image||Trans-encode image to 640 × 280|
|Audio||Full audio file → cutting up first 5 s|
|Video||Full video file → cutting up first 5 s → trans-encode from .wmv to animated .gif|
|On (Send/Recv)||Off||358.27 mW|
|On||On (Broadcast)||1107.84 mW|
|On||On (Connected)||398.27 mW|
|On||On (Send/Recv)||1319.29 mW|
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Park, K.-W.; Lee, Y.; Baek, S.H. Energy-Efficient Hosting Rich Content from Mobile Platforms with Relative Proximity Sensing. Sensors 2017, 17, 1828. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081828
Park K-W, Lee Y, Baek SH. Energy-Efficient Hosting Rich Content from Mobile Platforms with Relative Proximity Sensing. Sensors. 2017; 17(8):1828. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081828Chicago/Turabian Style
Park, Ki-Woong, Younho Lee, and Sung Hoon Baek. 2017. "Energy-Efficient Hosting Rich Content from Mobile Platforms with Relative Proximity Sensing" Sensors 17, no. 8: 1828. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081828