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Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2682;

Development and Validation of an On-Line Water Toxicity Sensor with Immobilized Luminescent Bacteria for On-Line Surface Water Monitoring

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
PAREXEL International, The Quays, 101-105 Oxford Rd, Uxbridge UB8 1LZ, UK
VTEC Lasers & Sensors, Kastanjelaan 400, 5616 LZ Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
National Institute for Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
The Ilse Katz Center for Meso and Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the 6egev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
AqWa ecologisch advies, Voorstad 45, 4461 KL Goes, The Netherlands
Evides Water Company, Schaardijk 150, 3063 NH Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Vrije Universiteit Faculty of Earth & Life Sciences, Department of Animal Ecology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
BioDectection Systems, Science Park 406, 1089 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Affiliation at the time of the study: KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Groningenhaven 7, 3433 PE Nieuwegein, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Toxic and Pathogen Detection)
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Surface water used for drinking water production is frequently monitored in The Netherlands using whole organism biomonitors, with for example Daphnia magna or Dreissena mussels, which respond to changes in the water quality. However, not all human-relevant toxic compounds can be detected by these biomonitors. Therefore, a new on-line biosensor has been developed, containing immobilized genetically modified bacteria, which respond to genotoxicity in the water by emitting luminescence. The performance of this sensor was tested under laboratory conditions, as well as under field conditions at a monitoring station along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. The sensor was robust and easy to clean, with inert materials, temperature control and nutrient feed for the reporter organisms. The bacteria were immobilized in sol-gel on either an optical fiber or a glass slide and then continuously exposed to water. Since the glass slide was more sensitive and robust, only this setup was used in the field. The sensor responded to spikes of genotoxic compounds in the water with a minimal detectable concentration of 0.01 mg/L mitomycin C in the laboratory and 0.1 mg/L mitomycin C in the field. With further optimization, which should include a reduction in daily maintenance, the sensor has the potential to become a useful addition to the currently available biomonitors. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensor; bacteria; luminescence; genotoxicity; water monitoring biosensor; bacteria; luminescence; genotoxicity; water monitoring

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Woutersen, M.; van der Gaag, B.; Abrafi Boakye, A.; Mink, J.; Marks, R.S.; Wagenvoort, A.J.; Ketelaars, H.A.M.; Brouwer, B.; Heringa, M.B. Development and Validation of an On-Line Water Toxicity Sensor with Immobilized Luminescent Bacteria for On-Line Surface Water Monitoring. Sensors 2017, 17, 2682.

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