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A Simple Interfacial Platform for Homogeneous Electrochemical Immunoassays Using a Poly(Vinylimidazole)-Modified Electrode

1
Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Dankook University, Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714, Korea
2
Department of Nanobiomedical Sciences and BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Benoit Piro and Steeve Reisberg
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010054
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensors)
In this study, a homogeneous method featuring simple, one-step detection was developed to analyze hippuric acid (HA), a major metabolite of toluene. High sensitivity was achieved with the facile immobilization of poly(vinylimidazole) (PVI) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Using a previously developed approach, pentacyanoferrate was coordinated with pyridyl-N ligands, and the redox-active Fe(II/III) centers were bound to Ni(II) ions on the electrode via electrostatic cyanide bridges. The detection was accomplished by the competitive binding of free HA and pentacyanoferrate-(4-aminomethylpyridine-hippuric acid) (Fe-HA, the electron transfer mediator) to the HA antibody on the Ni(II) ions-modified PVI-ITO (Ni-PVI-ITO) electrode. The electrical and physicochemical characterization of the electrode was carried out by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At low mediator concentrations, the electrical signals were proportional to the HA concentration between 0.1 µg/mL and 1.0 mg/mL. The same method may be extended to other small organic molecules. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunoassay; hippuric acid; electrochemical biosensor; nickel ion; mediator immunoassay; hippuric acid; electrochemical biosensor; nickel ion; mediator
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, Y.-B.; Jeon, W.-Y.; Kim, H.-H. A Simple Interfacial Platform for Homogeneous Electrochemical Immunoassays Using a Poly(Vinylimidazole)-Modified Electrode. Sensors 2017, 17, 54.

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