Next Article in Journal
Electropolymerized Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Film for Sensing of Clofibric Acid
Next Article in Special Issue
Network Challenges for Cyber Physical Systems with Tiny Wireless Devices: A Case Study on Reliable Pipeline Condition Monitoring
Previous Article in Journal
An Automated Field Phenotyping Pipeline for Application in Grapevine Research
Previous Article in Special Issue
Symphony: A Framework for Accurate and Holistic WSN Simulation
Review

The Past, Present and Future of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Focus on Models

EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1770, USA
Academic Editor: Albert M. K. Cheng
Sensors 2015, 15(3), 4837-4869; https://doi.org/10.3390/s150304837
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 22 January 2015 / Accepted: 3 February 2015 / Published: 26 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber-Physical Systems)
This paper is about better engineering of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) through better models. Deterministic models have historically proven extremely useful and arguably form the kingpin of the industrial revolution and the digital and information technology revolutions. Key deterministic models that have proven successful include differential equations, synchronous digital logic and single-threaded imperative programs. Cyber-physical systems, however, combine these models in such a way that determinism is not preserved. Two projects show that deterministic CPS models with faithful physical realizations are possible and practical. The first project is PRET, which shows that the timing precision of synchronous digital logic can be practically made available at the software level of abstraction. The second project is Ptides (programming temporally-integrated distributed embedded systems), which shows that deterministic models for distributed cyber-physical systems have practical faithful realizations. These projects are existence proofs that deterministic CPS models are possible and practical. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyber-physical systems; real-time systems; clock synchronization; time synchronization; PRET machines; distributed systems cyber-physical systems; real-time systems; clock synchronization; time synchronization; PRET machines; distributed systems
Show Figures

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, E.A. The Past, Present and Future of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Focus on Models. Sensors 2015, 15, 4837-4869. https://doi.org/10.3390/s150304837

AMA Style

Lee EA. The Past, Present and Future of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Focus on Models. Sensors. 2015; 15(3):4837-4869. https://doi.org/10.3390/s150304837

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Edward A. 2015. "The Past, Present and Future of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Focus on Models" Sensors 15, no. 3: 4837-4869. https://doi.org/10.3390/s150304837

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop