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New Records of Antarctic Tardigrada with Comments on Interpopulation Variability of the Paramacrobiotus fairbanksi Schill, Förster, Dandekar and Wolf, 2010

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Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 6, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
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Department of Genetics and Biosystematics, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
3
Department of Marine Plankton Research, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland
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Department of Morphology, Systematics and Phylogeny of Animals, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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National Antarctic Scientific Center of Ukraine, Boulevard Tarasa Shevchenka 16, 01601 Kyiv, Ukraine
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Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine, st. Acad. Zabolotny, 150, Kyiv 03143, Ukraine
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Department of General Zoology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 6, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
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Department of Bioenergetics, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 6, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2020, 12(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12030108
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 16 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 20 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tardigrades Taxonomy, Biology and Ecology)
Studies on Antarctic tardigrades started at the beginning of the twentieth century and have progressed very slowly and ca. 75 tardigrade species are known from this region. Paramacrobiotus fairbanksi was described from USA based on genetic markers and later reported from Italy, Poland, and Spain. The “everything is everywhere” hypothesis suggests that microscopic organisms have specific features which help them to inhabit most of environments and due to this they can be considered cosmopolitan. In the present paper, we report eight tardigrade taxa from Antarctic, including the first report of Pam. fairbanksi from Southern Hemisphere, which could suggest that the “everything is everywhere” hypothesis could be true, at least for some tardigrade species. Moreover, we also genetically and morphologically compare a few different populations of Pam. fairbanksi. The p-distances between COI haplotypes of all sequenced Pam. fairbanksi populations from Antarctica, Italy, Spain, USA and Poland ranged from 0.002% to 0.005%. In the case of COI polymorphism analyses, only one haplotype was observed in populations from Antarctica, USA and Poland, two haplotypes were found in population from Spain, and six haplotypes were observed in population from Italy. We also found some statistically significant morphometrical differences between the populations of Pam. fairbanksi from different regions and designed a new specific primers for Paramacrobiotus taxa. View Full-Text
Keywords: cosmopolitism; dispersal; zoogeography; “everything is everywhere” hypothesis, fauna; water bears cosmopolitism; dispersal; zoogeography; “everything is everywhere” hypothesis, fauna; water bears
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Kaczmarek, Ł.; Mioduchowska, M.; Kačarević, U.; Kubska, K.; Parnikoza, I.; Gołdyn, B.; Roszkowska, M. New Records of Antarctic Tardigrada with Comments on Interpopulation Variability of the Paramacrobiotus fairbanksi Schill, Förster, Dandekar and Wolf, 2010. Diversity 2020, 12, 108.

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