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Open AccessArticle

DNA Barcoding for Delimitation of Putative Mexican Marine Nematodes Species

1
Departamento Sistemática y Ecología Acuática, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Chetumal, Av. Centenario Km. 5.5, Quintana Roo, CP 77014, Mexico
2
Department of Biology, Geology and Environmental Science, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, 615 McCallie Ave, Chattanooga, TN 37403, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2020, 12(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12030107
Received: 6 February 2020 / Revised: 12 March 2020 / Accepted: 15 March 2020 / Published: 19 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meiofauna Biodiversity and Ecology)
Nematode biodiversity is mostly unknown; while about 20,000 nematode species have been described, estimates for species diversity range from 0.1 to 100 million. The study of nematode diversity, like that of meiofaunal organisms in general, has been mostly based on morphology-based taxonomy, a time-consuming and costly task that requires well-trained specialists. This work represents the first study on the taxonomy of Mexican nematodes that integrates morphological and molecular data. We added eleven new records to the Mexican Caribbean nematode species list: Anticomidae sp.1, Catanema sp.1, Enoploides gryphus, Eurystomina sp.1, Haliplectus bickneri, Metachromadora sp.1, Odontophora bermudensis, Oncholaimus sp.1, Onyx litorale, Proplatycoma fleurdelis, and Pontonema cf. simile. We improved the COI database with 57 new sequences from 20 morphotypes. All COI sequences obtained in this work are new entries for the international genetic databases GenBank and BOLD. Among the studied sites, we report the most extensive species record (12 species) at Cozumel. DNA barcoding and species delineation methods supported the occurrence of 20 evolutionary independent entities and confirmed the high taxonomic resolution of the COI gene. Different approaches provided consistent results: ABGD and mPTP methods disentangled 20 entities, whereas Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) recovered 22 genetic species. Results support DNA barcoding being an efficient, fast, and low-cost method to integrate into morphological observations in order to address taxonomical shortfalls in meiofaunal organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: ABGD; BINs; DNA barcoding; meiofauna; mPTP ABGD; BINs; DNA barcoding; meiofauna; mPTP
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Martínez-Arce, A.; De Jesús-Navarrete, A.; Leasi, F. DNA Barcoding for Delimitation of Putative Mexican Marine Nematodes Species. Diversity 2020, 12, 107.

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