Next Article in Journal
Understanding the Molecular Basis of 5-HT4 Receptor Partial Agonists through 3D-QSAR Studies
Next Article in Special Issue
Clinical Application of Novel Therapies for Coronary Angiogenesis: Overview, Challenges, and Prospects
Previous Article in Journal
Exosomes: Small EVs with Large Immunomodulatory Effect in Glioblastoma
Previous Article in Special Issue
Emerging Role of AP-1 Transcription Factor JunB in Angiogenesis and Vascular Development
Review

The Role of Circulating Biomarkers in Peripheral Arterial Disease

1
Laboratory of Atherothrombosis, Program of Cardiovascular Diseases, Cima Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
2
IdiSNA, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
3
Departamento de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
4
CIBERCV, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
5
Laboratory of Heart Failure, Program of Cardiovascular Diseases, Cima Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
6
Hematology Service, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Paul Quax and Elisabeth Deindl
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3601; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073601
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arteriogenesis and Therapeutic Angiogenesis)
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower extremities is a chronic illness predominantly of atherosclerotic aetiology, associated to traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. It is one of the most prevalent CV conditions worldwide in subjects >65 years, estimated to increase greatly with the aging of the population, becoming a severe socioeconomic problem in the future. The narrowing and thrombotic occlusion of the lower limb arteries impairs the walking function as the disease progresses, increasing the risk of CV events (myocardial infarction and stroke), amputation and death. Despite its poor prognosis, PAD patients are scarcely identified until the disease is advanced, highlighting the need for reliable biomarkers for PAD patient stratification, that might also contribute to define more personalized medical treatments. In this review, we will discuss the usefulness of inflammatory molecules, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and cardiac damage markers, as well as novel components of the liquid biopsy, extracellular vesicles (EVs), and non-coding RNAs for lower limb PAD identification, stratification, and outcome assessment. We will also explore the potential of machine learning methods to build prediction models to refine PAD assessment. In this line, the usefulness of multimarker approaches to evaluate this complex multifactorial disease will be also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: peripheral arterial disease; biomarkers; inflammation; coagulation; extracellular vesicles; microRNAs; machine learning peripheral arterial disease; biomarkers; inflammation; coagulation; extracellular vesicles; microRNAs; machine learning
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Saenz-Pipaon, G.; Martinez-Aguilar, E.; Orbe, J.; González Miqueo, A.; Fernandez-Alonso, L.; Paramo, J.A.; Roncal, C. The Role of Circulating Biomarkers in Peripheral Arterial Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3601. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073601

AMA Style

Saenz-Pipaon G, Martinez-Aguilar E, Orbe J, González Miqueo A, Fernandez-Alonso L, Paramo JA, Roncal C. The Role of Circulating Biomarkers in Peripheral Arterial Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(7):3601. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073601

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saenz-Pipaon, Goren, Esther Martinez-Aguilar, Josune Orbe, Arantxa González Miqueo, Leopoldo Fernandez-Alonso, Jose A. Paramo, and Carmen Roncal. 2021. "The Role of Circulating Biomarkers in Peripheral Arterial Disease" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 7: 3601. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073601

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop