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Open AccessArticle

Artemether-Loaded Zein Nanoparticles: An Innovative Intravenous Dosage Form for the Management of Severe Malaria

1
Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island, Singapore 627833, Singapore
2
Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Singapore
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sunyani Technical University, P.O. Box 206 Sunyani, Ghana
4
College of Pharmacy, Shenzhen Technology University, 3002 Lantian Road, Pingshan District, Shenzhen 518118, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maciej Jarzębski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031141
Received: 4 January 2021 / Revised: 16 January 2021 / Accepted: 17 January 2021 / Published: 24 January 2021
Artemether, an artemisinin derivative, is used in the management of life-threatening severe malaria. This study aimed to develop an intravenous dosage form of artemether using nanotechnology. Artemether-loaded zein nanoparticles were prepared by modified antisolvent precipitation using sodium caseinate as a stabilizer. Subsequently, the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized; the in vitro hemolytic property was examined with red blood cells, while the pharmacokinetic profile was evaluated in Sprague–Dawley rats after intravenous administration. The artemether-loaded zein nanoparticles were found to display good encapsulation efficiency, excellent physical stability and offer an in vitro extended-release property. Interestingly, encapsulation of artemether into zein nanoparticles substantially suppressed hemolysis, a common clinical phenomenon occurring after artemisinin-based antimalarial therapy. Upon intravenous administration, artemether-loaded zein nanoparticles extended the mean residence time of artemether by ~80% in comparison to the free artemether formulation (82.9 ± 15.2 versus 45.6 ± 16.4 min, p < 0.01), suggesting that the nanoparticles may prolong the therapeutic duration and reduce the dosing frequency in a clinical setting. In conclusion, intravenous delivery of artemether by artemether-loaded zein nanoparticles appears to be a promising therapeutic option for severe malaria. View Full-Text
Keywords: artemether; artemisinin; extended release; hemolysis; intravenous; nanoparticles; pharmacokinetics; severe malaria; sodium caseinate; zein artemether; artemisinin; extended release; hemolysis; intravenous; nanoparticles; pharmacokinetics; severe malaria; sodium caseinate; zein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Boateng-Marfo, Y.; Dong, Y.; Ng, W.K.; Lin, H.-S. Artemether-Loaded Zein Nanoparticles: An Innovative Intravenous Dosage Form for the Management of Severe Malaria. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1141. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031141

AMA Style

Boateng-Marfo Y, Dong Y, Ng WK, Lin H-S. Artemether-Loaded Zein Nanoparticles: An Innovative Intravenous Dosage Form for the Management of Severe Malaria. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1141. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031141

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boateng-Marfo, Yaa; Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai K.; Lin, Hai-Shu. 2021. "Artemether-Loaded Zein Nanoparticles: An Innovative Intravenous Dosage Form for the Management of Severe Malaria" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 3: 1141. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031141

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