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Delineating the Molecular Events Underlying Development of Prostate Cancer Variants with Neuroendocrine/Small Cell Carcinoma Characteristics

Department of Urology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
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Academic Editor: Hiroshi Miyamoto
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12742; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312742
Received: 6 October 2021 / Revised: 17 November 2021 / Accepted: 19 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Advances in Prostate Cancer)
The treatment landscape of prostate cancer has changed dramatically following the advent of novel systemic therapies, most of which target the androgen receptor (AR). Agents such as abiraterone, enzalutamide, apalutamide, darolutamide were designed to further suppress androgen receptor signaling following gonadal suppression achieved by first-line androgen deprivation therapies. These potent AR targeting agents are increasingly used in the earlier stages of the disease spectrum with the goal of delaying disease progression and extending survival. Although these therapies are effective in controlling prostate tumors dependent on or addicted to AR signaling, prostate tumors surviving the onslaught of potent treatments may evolve and develop drug resistance. A substantial proportion of treatment failures can be explained by the development of treatment-induced aggressive prostate cancer variants such as neuroendocrine/small cell carcinoma. These emerging disease entities demand detailed characterization and precise definitions. We postulate that these treatment-induced prostate cancer entities should be defined molecularly to overcome the drawbacks associated with the current clinical and pathological definitions. A precise molecular definition conforms with current knowledge on the molecular evolution of this disease entity and will enable early detection and early intervention. View Full-Text
Keywords: lineage plasticity; neuroendocrine/small cell carcinoma; aggressive variant prostate cancer lineage plasticity; neuroendocrine/small cell carcinoma; aggressive variant prostate cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kanayama, M.; Luo, J. Delineating the Molecular Events Underlying Development of Prostate Cancer Variants with Neuroendocrine/Small Cell Carcinoma Characteristics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 12742. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312742

AMA Style

Kanayama M, Luo J. Delineating the Molecular Events Underlying Development of Prostate Cancer Variants with Neuroendocrine/Small Cell Carcinoma Characteristics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(23):12742. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312742

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kanayama, Mayuko, and Jun Luo. 2021. "Delineating the Molecular Events Underlying Development of Prostate Cancer Variants with Neuroendocrine/Small Cell Carcinoma Characteristics" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 23: 12742. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312742

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