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Article

Osteogenic Properties of 3D-Printed Silica-Carbon-Calcite Composite Scaffolds: Novel Approach for Personalized Bone Tissue Regeneration

1
Department of Animal Medicine, Productions and Health, University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
2
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
3
Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, El-Bohous Str., 12622 Cairo, Egypt
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Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
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Biomedical Engineering Program, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
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BIOMATEN, METU Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
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Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Università di Padova, 35100 Padova, Italy
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Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020475
Received: 29 November 2020 / Revised: 23 December 2020 / Accepted: 28 December 2020 / Published: 6 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Materials: Biological and Biomedical Applications)
Carbon enriched bioceramic (C-Bio) scaffolds have recently shown exceptional results in terms of their biological and mechanical properties. The present study aims at assessing the ability of the C-Bio scaffolds to affect the commitment of canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cAD-MSCs) and investigating the influence of carbon on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of cAD-MSCs in vitro. The commitment of cAD-MSCs to an osteoblastic phenotype has been evaluated by expression of several osteogenic markers using real-time PCR. Biocompatibility analyses through 3-(4,5-dimethyl- thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, hemolysis assay, and Ames test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of both materials. A significant increase in the extracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and expression of runt-related transcription factor (RUNX), ALP, osterix (OSX), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL) genes was observed in C-Bio scaffolds compared to those without carbon (Bio). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated excellent cell attachment on both material surfaces; however, the cellular layer on C-Bio fibers exhibited an apparent secretome activity. Based on our findings, graphene can improve cell adhesion, growth, and osteogenic differentiation of cAD-MSCs in vitro. This study proposed carbon as an additive for a novel three-dimensional (3D)-printable biocompatible scaffold which could become the key structural material for bone tissue reconstruction. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; graphene; biomaterial 3D printing; graphene; biomaterial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Memarian, P.; Sartor, F.; Bernardo, E.; Elsayed, H.; Ercan, B.; Delogu, L.G.; Zavan, B.; Isola, M. Osteogenic Properties of 3D-Printed Silica-Carbon-Calcite Composite Scaffolds: Novel Approach for Personalized Bone Tissue Regeneration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 475. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020475

AMA Style

Memarian P, Sartor F, Bernardo E, Elsayed H, Ercan B, Delogu LG, Zavan B, Isola M. Osteogenic Properties of 3D-Printed Silica-Carbon-Calcite Composite Scaffolds: Novel Approach for Personalized Bone Tissue Regeneration. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):475. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020475

Chicago/Turabian Style

Memarian, Parastoo, Francesco Sartor, Enrico Bernardo, Hamada Elsayed, Batur Ercan, Lucia Gemma Delogu, Barbara Zavan, and Maurizio Isola. 2021. "Osteogenic Properties of 3D-Printed Silica-Carbon-Calcite Composite Scaffolds: Novel Approach for Personalized Bone Tissue Regeneration" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 2: 475. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020475

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