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Immunogenetic, Molecular and Microbiotic Determinants of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Clinical Practice—A New Perspective of an Old Disease

1
Department of Gastroenterology, Dietetics and Internal Diseases, University of Medical Sciences, Przybyszewskiego 49, 60-355 Poznan, Poland
2
Institute of Human Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Strzeszynska 32, 60-479 Poznan, Poland
3
Department of Pathomorphology, University of Medical Sciences, Przybyszewskiego 49, 60-355 Poznan, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Candelli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910830
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 1 October 2021 / Accepted: 5 October 2021 / Published: 7 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Focus on Gastrointestinal Diseases)
Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, allergic disease associated with a T-lymphocyte response inducing esophageal eosinophilic infiltration in the esophagus. Inflammation and tissue fibrosis are responsible for the main clinical symptoms such as food impaction and dysphagia. The etiopathogenesis is multifactorial in which genetic and environmental factors coexist. The most common trigger is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy to milk, wheat, egg, soybean, nuts, fish, and seafood. The second factor we focus on is the contribution of genetic variation to the risk of EoE, describing the expression profile of selected genes associated with eosinophilic oesophagitis. We raise the topic of treatment, aiming to eliminate inflammation through an elimination diet and/or use of pharmacologic therapy with the use of proton pump inhibitors or steroids and endoscopic procedures to dilate the esophagus. We demonstrate that early diagnosis and effective treatment prevent the development of food impaction and decreased quality of life. The increasing presence of EoE requires bigger awareness among medical specialists concerning clinical features, the course of EoE, diagnostic tools, and management strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis; genetic factors; environmental factors; molecular mechanism; microbiome; diet therapy eosinophilic esophagitis; genetic factors; environmental factors; molecular mechanism; microbiome; diet therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kanikowska, A.; Hryhorowicz, S.; Rychter, A.M.; Kucharski, M.A.; Zawada, A.; Iwanik, K.; Eder, P.; Słomski, R.; Dobrowolska, A.; Krela-Kaźmierczak, I. Immunogenetic, Molecular and Microbiotic Determinants of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Clinical Practice—A New Perspective of an Old Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 10830. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910830

AMA Style

Kanikowska A, Hryhorowicz S, Rychter AM, Kucharski MA, Zawada A, Iwanik K, Eder P, Słomski R, Dobrowolska A, Krela-Kaźmierczak I. Immunogenetic, Molecular and Microbiotic Determinants of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Clinical Practice—A New Perspective of an Old Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(19):10830. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910830

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kanikowska, Alina, Szymon Hryhorowicz, Anna M. Rychter, Marcin A. Kucharski, Agnieszka Zawada, Katarzyna Iwanik, Piotr Eder, Ryszard Słomski, Agnieszka Dobrowolska, and Iwona Krela-Kaźmierczak. 2021. "Immunogenetic, Molecular and Microbiotic Determinants of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Clinical Practice—A New Perspective of an Old Disease" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 19: 10830. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910830

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